Related Topics

THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL (FAME) FROM PALM KERNEL OIL (PKO) USING CONCENTRATED SULPHURIC ACID AS CATALYST


Content

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     ADVANTAGES OF THE USE OF BIODIESEL

1.2.1    EMISSION REDUCTION WITH BIODIESEL

1.2.2    LOW HYDROCARBON EMISSION

1.2.3    SMOKE AND SOOT REDUCTION

1.2.5 POSITIVE ENERGY BALANCE FOR SOLAR ENERGY IN                                                                                                                                   BIODIESEL

1.3      DRAWBACKS OF THE USE OF   BIODIESEL

1.3.1    GELLING

1.3.2    CONTAMINATION BY WATER

1.3.3    PERFORMANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROBLEM OF BIODIESEL ENGINE

1.4     HEALTH EFFECT OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

1.5     ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

1.6 TRANSESTERIFICATION OF BIODIESEL

1.7     PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL

1.7.1  SPECIFIC GRAVITY

1.7.2  KINEMATIC VISCOSITY

1.7.3  WATER AND SEDIMENT

1.7.4  FLASH POINT

1.7.5  CLOUD POINT / POUR POINT

1.7.6  CETANE NUMBER

1.7.7  CALORIFIC VALUE                            

1.7.8  SULPHUR CONTENT

1.7.9  CARBON RESIDUE

1.7.10   DIESEL INDEX

1.7.11            COPPER STRIP CORROSION

1.8     USES OF BIODIESEL

1.9   PALM KERNEL OIL AS BIODIESEL

1.10    AIMS OF THE STUDY

1.11    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.12    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1.13     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

CHAPTER TWO

MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1    MATERIALS

2.2     REAGENTS

2.3 METHOD

2.3.1 FEEDSTOCK PRETREATMENT

2.3.2  MIXING

2.3.3  SEPARTION

2.3.4  PRODUCT PURIFICATION/DRYING

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESULTS, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

3.1     EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

3.2     DISCUSSION OF RESULT

3.2.1   SPECIFIC GRAVITY

3.2.2   KINEMATIC VISCOSITY

3.2.3   WATER AND SEDIMENT

3.2.4   FLASH POINT

3.2.5   POUR POINT

3.2.6   VACUUM DISTILLATION  

3.2.7   TOTAL ACID NUMBER

3.3     CONCLUSION

3.4     RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

 


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Energy is a fundamental pillar of modern society as well as being an essential building block for socio-economic development (UNIDO, 2007). The awareness of the imminent depletion of fossil fuels coupled with a global energy crisis has stimulated interest in the research for alternative energy source (Garba et al., 1996). The urgent need for alternative and cheaper energy supplies in Nigeria is increasingly apparent now considering the epileptic supply and distribution of the fossil fuels that have risen beyond the reach of Nigerian rural people (Eze, 2003).

The uses of renewable raw materials significantly contribute to sustainable development usually interpreted as “acting responsibly to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Meier, et al., 2007).

Currently, plant oils are the most important renewable raw materials for the chemical industry. They are triglycerides (tri – esters of glycerol with long chain fatty acid) (see Fig. 1) with varying composition of fatty acids depending on the plant, the crop, the season and the growing conditions.

O

O

RI

O

O

RI

O

RI

O

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 1.1: Chemical structure of triglyceride, R = alkyl groups.

The Table below shows the composition of some oils that have been used for transesterification to yield biodiesel. It shows the composition of the fatty acid contained, chain length in carbon atoms and number of double bonds.

Table 1.1: The composition of some oils from plant

R(x,y) =

10:0

12:0

14:0

16:0

18:0

18:1

18:2

18:3

20:0

New rapeseed

-

-

0.5

4

1

60

20

9

2

Sun flower

-

-

-

6

4

28

61

-

-

Palm kernel

5

50

15

7

2

15

1

-

-

Linseed

-

-

-

10

5

22

15

52

-

Soybean

-

-

-

10

5

21

53

8

0.5

          R(x,y) = Composition of the fatty acids;

                    x = Chain length in carbon atoms;

                    y = Number of double bonds

Biofuels are a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass and can be used as a large source of energy supply. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases (Dembras, 2009). Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and government subsidies.

Biofuels are drawing increasing attention worldwide as substitutes for petroleum – derived transportation fuels to help address energy cost, energy security and global warming concern associated with liquid fossil fuels. Biofuels include ethanol made from sugar cane or diesel-like fuel made from soybean oil, dimethyl ether (DME) or Fischer – Tropsch Liquids (FTL) made from lignocellusosic biomass.

The Energy Commission of Nigeria envisions that in the short term (2005 – 2007), crude oil will continue to play a dominant role in the economic development of the country, while in the medium term (2008 – 2015), a transition in energy from crude oil to less carbon – intensive economy increasingly powered by gas. Also, in the long term (2016 – 2025), the nation’s energy requirement will be completely non fossil. (ECN, 2005).

A relatively recently popularized classification for liquid biofuels includes first generation and second generation fuels. There is no strict technical definitions for these terms but the main distinction between them is the feedstock used.

First generation fuels are generally those made from sugar, grains or seeds, i.e. one that uses only a specific (often edible) portion of the above – ground biomass produced by a plant , and relatively simple processing is required to produce a finished fuel. First generation fuels are already being produced in significant commercial quantities in a number of countries. Members of this group are bioalcohol, biodiesel, green diesel (also known as renewable diesel), bioether, biogas e.t.c.

Second generation fuels are generally those made from non-edible lignocellosic biomass, either non-edible residues of  food crop production (e.g. corn stalks or rice husks) or non-edible whole plant biomass (e.g. grasses or trees grown specifically for energy). Second generation biofuels are basically produced from sustainable feedstock. Sustainability of a feedstock is defined among others by availability of the feedstock, impact on greenhouse gas emissions and impact on biodiversity and land use. Many second generation biofuels are under development such as cellusoic ethanol, algae fuel, biohydrogen, biomethanol, Fischer – Tropsch diesel, mixed alcohols, biohydrogen diesel and wood diesel.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) is an alternative fuel for diesel engines. It is an alcohol ester product from the transesterification of triglycerides in vegetable oils or animals accomplished by reacting lower alcohols such as methanol or ethanol with triglycerides.

The National Biodiesel Board (USA) technically defined biodiesel as a mono-alkyl ester. Blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon based diesel are products most commonly distributed for use in the retail diesel fuel market place. Biodiesel contain no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. Much of the world uses a system known as the “B” factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix:

Ø 100% biodiesel is referred to as B100.

Ø 20% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel is labelled B20.

Ø 5% biodiesel, 95% petrodiesel is labelled B5.

Ø 2% biodiesel, 98% petrodiesel is labelled B2.

Blends of less than 20% biodiesel can be used in diesel equipment with no, or only minor modifications. Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most injection pump diesel engine. New extreme high-pressure (29000 psi) common rail engine have strict factory limits of B5 or B20 depending on manufacturers.

Biodiesel has different solvent properties than petrodiesel, and will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles (mostly vehicles manufactured before 1992), although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced with FKM, which is non reactive to biodiesel.

The first diesel engine was produced by Rudolf in Augsburg and Germany. In remembrance of this event, August 10 has been declared “International Biodiesel Day”. Rudolf diesel demonstrated a diesel running on pea nut (at the request of the French government) but for the French otto company at the world fair in Paris, France in 1990. (Knothe, 2001).

Biodiesel has been known to breakdown deposits of residue in the fuel lines where petrodiesel has been used. As a result, fuel filters may become clogged with particulates of a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made. Therefore, it is recommended to change the fuel filters on engine and heaters shortly after switching to a biodiesel blend.

Biodiesel is light to dark yellow liquid immiscible with water, with high boiling point and low vapour pressure. It has been used as a substitute for diesel fuel in the automobile industry and also referred to as a diesel – equivalent processed fuel derived from vegetable oils. (Biodiesel, 2007).

Several research have been performed on the production of biodiesel and some basic feedstock for the fuel includes animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapseed, jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, hemp, field pennycress, pongamiapinnata and algae. Pure biodiesel is the lowest emission diesel fuel. Although liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen have cleaner combustion, they are used to fuel much less efficient petrol engines and are not as widely available. Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, meaning that it contains a reduced amount of carbon and higher hydrogen and oxygen content than fossil diesel. This improves the combustion and reduces the particulate emission from un-burnt carbon. Biodiesel is also safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, ten times less toxic than table salt, has a high flash point of about 300oF (148oC) compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125oF (52oC). (www.eere.energy/gov/cleancities/afde/altfuel)

Current commercial production of biodiesel (FAME) is via homogeneous transesterification but this process has a lot of limitations, thus, making the cost of biodiesel not economical as compared to petroleum-derived diesel. One of the most significant limitations using this process is the formations of soap in the product mixture leading to additional cost required for the separation of soap from the biodiesel. Also, the formation of soap has also led to the loss of triglycerides molecules that can be used to form biodiesel. However, since the catalyst and the reactants/products are in the same phase, the separation of products (biodiesel) from the catalyst becomes complex. On the other hand, heterogeneous transesterification can overcome all these limitations in which solid based catalyst is used in place of homogeneous catalyst, making it a more efficient process for biodiesel production with lower cost and reduced environmental impact.

Xie et al. studied the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl ester using potassium-loaded alumina catalyst. Also, Suppes et al. studied the transesterification reaction of soybean oil with zeolite and metal catalysts for the production of biodiesel, while Jitputti et al. studied the transesterification of crude palm kernel oil and crude coconut oil using several acidic and basic solids.

All these study indicated that different oils would require different catalyst for optimum conversion to biodiesel. {International Conference on Environment 2008 (ICENV 2008)}

 

 

 

1.2     ADVANTAGES OF THE USE OF BIODIESEL

The advantages of using biodiesel compared to mineral derived diesel or conventional diesel fuel includes:

1.2.4    EMISSION REDUCTION WITH BIODIESEL

Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil, it does not contain any sulphur, aromatic hydrocarbons, metals or crude oil residues. The absence of sulphur implies a reduction in the formation of acid rain by sulphate emission which generate sulphuric acid in our atmosphere. The reduced sulphur in the blend will also decrease the levels of corrosive sulphuric acid accumulating in the engine crankcase oil over time.

The absence of toxic and carcinogenic aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylene) in biodiesel implies that the fuel mixture combustion gases will have reduced impact on human health and the environment. The high cetane rating of biodiesel (ranges from 49 to 62) is another measure of the additive stability to improve combustion efficiency.

1.2.5    LOW HYDROCARBON EMISSION

As an oxygen vegetable hydrocarbon, biodiesel itself burns cleanly, but it also improves the efficiency of combustion in blends with petroleum fuel. As a result of cleaner emissions, there will be reduced air and water pollution from engines operated on biodiesel blends.

1.2.6    SMOKE AND SOOT REDUCTION

Smoke (particulate material) and soot (unburnt fuel and carbon residues) are of increasing concern to urban air quality problems that are causing a wide range of adverse health effects for their citizens, especially in terms of respiratory impairment and related illness. The lack of heavy petroleum oil residues in the vegetable oil esters that are normally found in diesel fuel means that a boat engine operating with biodiesel will have less smoke, and less soot produced from unburnt fuel.

1.2.7    REDUCTION IN GREENHOUSE GASES

Unlike other “clean fuels” such as compressed natural gas (CNG), biodiesel and biofuels are produced from renewable agricultural crops that assimilate carbondioxide from the atmosphere to become plants and vegetable oil. The carbondioxide released this year from burning vegetable oil biodiesels, in effect, will be recaptured next year by crops growing in fields to produce more vegetable oil starting materials.

 

1.2.5 POSITIVE ENERGY BALANCE FOR SOLAR ENERGY IN BIODIESEL

Although it takes fossil energy to produce and transport biofuel, biodiesel has a very favourable energy balance, especially relative to energy – negative ethanol from corn. Biodiesel production has positive energy balance ratios ranging from 2.5:1 (institute for local self – reliance) up to 7.4:1 in Europe, depending on oil crop and distance required to transport the raw materials. (Singh, 2006), (Margaroni, 1998; Knothe and Steidley, 2005).

1.3   DRAWBACKS OF THE USE OF BIODIESEL

Despite these advantages, there are several draw backs that prevent wider use of biodiesel. One of the major drawback is its high energy consumption and production cost, partly resulting from the complicated separation and purification of the product. Thus, the production cost is reduced by performing the reaction without the presence of a catalyst. Other draw backs include:

1.3.4    GELLING

The cloud point or temperature at which pure biodiesel starts to gel varies significantly and depends upon the mix of ester and therefore the feedstock oil used to produce the biodiesel. For example, biodiesel produced from low erucic acid varieties of canola seed (RME) starts to gel at approximately -10oC (140oF). Biodiesel produced from tallow tends to gel at around +16oC (68oF). As of 2006, there are very limited numbers of products that will significantly lower the gel point of straight biodiesel. (www.http.web con/biodiesel. html).

1.3.5    CONTAMINATION BY WATER

The persistence of mono and diglyceride left over from an incomplete reaction can result in small but problematic from quantities of water due to attraction from atmosphere moisture (thus the biodiesel is said to be hygroscopic). In addition, there may be water that is residual to processing or resulting from storage tank condensation. The presence of water is a problem because:

Ø It reduces the heat of combustion of the bulk fuel which in turn enhances more smoke, harder starting less power.

Ø It causes corrosion of vital fuel system components; such as injection pumps, fuel lines, fuel pumps.

Ø It freezes to form ice crystals near 0oC (32oF), these crystals provide sites for nucleation and accelerate the gelling of the residual fuel.

Ø It accelerates the growth of microbe colonies, which can plug up a fuel system.

Ø Water can cause pitting in the pistons on a diesel engine.

(www.http.web con/biodiesel. Html).

1.3.6    PERFORMANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROBLEM OF BIODIESEL ENGINE

 Biodiesel is a better solvent than petrodiesel and has been known to break down deposit of residue in the fuel lines of vehicles that have previously been run on petrodiesel. Fuel filters may become clogged with particulate if a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made as biodiesel “leans” the engine in the process. Vehicle loses and filters needs to be checked after six months of operation on biodiesel. Replacement of non-compatible hoses may be necessary, but it is not usually difficult or expensive. (Syased, 1998).

1.4     HEALTH EFFECT OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

Research has been conducted and it was proved that diesel particulate matter is a potential carcinogen. In 1989, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that diesel exhaust be regarded as a potential occupational carcinogen as defined in the cancer policy of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The use of biodiesel decrease most regulated emissions. Research results indicate that particulate matter specifically the carbon or insoluble fraction, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are significantly reduced.

Furthermore, reducing the overall level of pollutant and carbon, the compounds that are prevalent in biodiesel and diesel fuel exhaust are different. Research conducted by southwest Research Institute on a Cummins engine indicates that biodiesel’s exhaust has a less harmful impact on human health than petrodiesel.

Biodiesel emissions had decreased levels of all target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitride PAH (nPAH) compound have been identified as potential cancer causing compounds. All of the PAH compounds were reduced by 75 to 85 percent, with the exception of  benzo(a)anthracene, which was reduced by roughly 50%. The target nPAH compound were also reduced dramatically with biodiesel fuel, with 2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90%, and the rest of the nPAH compounds reduced to only trace levels. All of these reductions are due to the fact that biodiesel fuel contains no aromatic compound of any kind.

1.5     ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

The location where oil-producing plants are groom is of interesting concern. Monoculture plantations clear cut large areas of tropical forest in order to grow such oil rich crops such as oil palm. In the Philippines and Indonesia, such forest clearing is already underway for the production of oil palm. In Indonesia, for example, deforestation has caused displacement of indigenous people. Also, in some areas, uses of pesticides for biofuel crops are disrupting clean water supplies. Loss of habitat on such a scale could endanger numerous species of plants and animals. A particular concern which has received considerable attention is the threat to the already shrinking populations of orangutans on the Indonesian island of Borneo and Sumatra, which face possible extinction. (www.http.web con/biodiesel. html).

1.6 TRANSESTERIFICATION OF BIODIESEL

Biodiesel production is the process of producing the biofuel, biodiesel, through transesterification or alcoholysis. It involves reacting vegetable oils or animal fats catalytically with a short-chain aliphatic alcohols (typically methanol or ethanol).

There are different basic routes to ester production from oils and fats. These are:

Ø Base catalyzed transesterifcation of the oil with alcohol.

Ø Direct acid catalyzed esterification of the oil with methanol.

Ø Conversion of the oil to fatty acids, and then to alky esters with acid catalysis.

In order to utilize a vegetable oil in a common diesel cycle engine, without any need of adaptation in the engine, there is need to transesterify the vegetable oil, with the aim of lowering its viscosity to a value close to that of mineral/conventional diesel oil.

Transesterification in chemistry is the process of exchanging the organic group, R2 of an ester with the organic group, R1 of an alcohol. These reactions are often catalyzed by the addition of an acid or base catalyst. The reaction can also be achieved via enzymes (biocatalysts). (Conceicao et al., 2005).

Transesterification or alcoholysis involves reacting vegetable oil or animal fat catalytically with a short – chain aliphatic alcohol (typically methanol). Methanol is the preferred alcohol for obtaining biodiesel because it is the cheapest and most available alcohol.

 Figure 1.2: Transesterification reaction

Strong acids catalyze the reaction by donating a proton to the carbonyl group, thus making it a more potent electrophile, whereas bases catalyze the reaction by removing a proton from the alcohol, thus making it more nucleophilic.

The chemical process above called transesterification involves the separation of glycerin from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind two products – methyl ester (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable by-product usually sold to be used in soap and other products). (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/biodiesel).

The reaction between the biolipid (fat or oil) and the alcohol is a reversible reaction (i.e. an equilibrium controlled reaction), so the alcohol must be added in excess to drive the reaction towards the right and ensure complete conversion. The animal and plant fats and oils are typically made of triglycerides which are esters containing three fatty acids and the trihydric alcohol, glycerol. In the transesterification process, the alcohol is deprotonated with a base to make it a stronger nucleophile. Normally, this reaction will proceed either exceedingly slowly or not at all. Heat, as well as an acid or base are used to help the reaction proceed more quickly. It is important to note that the acid or base are not consumed by the transesterification reaction, thus they are not reactants but catalysts. (Freedman and Mount, 2004).

 

 

 

 

 

1.7     PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL

Some of the important properties that characterize biodiesel are briefly highlighted below:

1.7.1  SPECIFIC GRAVITY

This method covers the determination of specific gravity ­­­(relative density) and density of crude oil, petroleum products or mixtures of petroleum and non petroleum liquid products using a glass hydrometer and a mercury in glass thermometer. This test provides a basis for determining the power required in pumping and whether the product will or will not float in water. It also gives an indication of the burning characteristics of the oil.

1.7.2  KINEMATIC VISCOSITY

Kinematic viscosity measures the resistance to flow of a fluid under gravity. The kinematic viscosity is equal to the dynamic viscosity (ratio between applied shear stress and the rate of shear of a liquid) / density (the mass per unit volume of a substance at a given temperature).

The kinematic viscosity is a basic design specification for the fuel injectors used in diesel engines. However, too high a viscosity, and the injectors do not perform poorly. The viscosity of biodiesel can be predicted to be ±15% using the esters composition determined.

1.7.3  WATER AND SEDIMENT

This method covers the determination of sediment and water in crude oil, petroleum products and non petroleum products by centrifuge method.

Water and sediments is a test that determines the volume of free water and sediment in middle distillate fuels having viscosities at 40oC in the range 1.0 to 4.1 mm2/s and densities in the range of 700 to 900 kg/m3. This test is a measure of cleanliness of the fuel. However, water is a usually kept out of the production process by removing it from the feedstock. Sediment may plug fuel filters and may contribute to the formation of deposits on fuel injectors and other engine damage.

1.7.4  FLASH POINT

The  flash  point  measures  the lowest  temperature  at  which  application  of  an  ignition source causes the vapours of the sample to ignite under specified condition of  test. The flash point is a determinant for flammability classification of materials.

 

 

1.7.5  CLOUD POINT / POUR POINT

The cloud point is the temperature at which a cloud of wax crystals first appears in a liquid when it is cooled down under conditions prescribed in the test method. The pour point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid becomes semi solid and loses its flow characteristics. The cloud point and pour point is a critical factor in cold weather performance for all diesel fuels.

1.7.6  CETANE NUMBER

The cetane  number  is  used  to evaluate fuels  used  in  compression  ignition  (diesel)  engines  and  is  analogous  to  octane  number. Cetane (n-hexadecane)  C16 H34  is designated  100  and  0-methyl  naphthalene (C11H10)  is designated zero so  that  the  cetane  number  of  fuel  is  the  proportion  of  cetane  number in  a  mixture of  these  having   the  same    ignition   delay  after  injection   of  the  fuel.  A high   speed   diesel fuel   may have   a cetane   number   between   52 and   54 and   a relative density of 0.84.    

1.7.7  CALORIFIC VALUE                            

The  caloric  value   of    a  fuel    is  number     of   heat   units  evolve  when  unit  mass  of  a  fuel  is  completely  burned  and  the  combustion  products   cooled  to  288K.   In  many  respects  the  calorific  value  of   a   fuel   is  the  most   important   required   before  a  fuel  can  be  used   efficiently   in  combustion  and  furnace    plant.    A  knowledge   and  calorific  value  of   the   fuel   to  be  used   enables  the  quantity  of   fuel  for  that  required   for  that  particular  duty   to  be   calculated.

1.7.8  SULPHUR CONTENT

The presence of   sulphur     in fuel is undesirable   due to the   fact that it is disastrous to compression   process.  In   compression  process,  sulphur   forms  its  dioxide  and  some   trioxide, which  may   produce  a  film  of  corrosive    sulphuric  acid   on  parts  of   the  engine.  The sulphur   content   can   be conveniently measured   at the   same   time a caloric value is determined using Mahler bomb calorimeter. This value may be as high as 20%. The corrosiveness may be determined by observing the colour bands of a strip of copper immersed in the oil.

1.7.9  CARBON RESIDUE

The tendency for diesel oil to form carbon is an important property and is determined by a carbon residue test. Carbon may be formed by diesel when they are burnt in the presence of a large excess air or when they are subjected to evaporation and pyrolysis.

 

 

1.7.10   DIESEL INDEX

The diesel index gives an estimation of the quality based on airline point and the relative density of the fuel.

Diesel index = airline point (o F) x relative density (API)

The airline point of a fuel is the temperature at which equal volume of the fuel and airline is just miscible. The index indicates the affinity of the fuel, and since paraffin’s, ignite more readily than any of the other components present, it gives an indication of ignition characteristics. It is only applicable to petroleum fuel when there are additives present.

1.7.11            COPPER STRIP CORROSION

The copper strip corrosion is used for the detection of the corrosiveness to copper of fuels and solvents. This test monitors the presence of acids in the fuel.

1.8     USES OF BIODIESEL

Ø Biodiesel is preferable for the environment because it is obtained from renewable resources and has lower emission and pollution hazard when compared to petroleum diesel. It has less toxic effect than table salt and biodegrades as fats and sugar. It is used as fuel to run internal combustion engines and it has a lot of benefits and uses which include:                                                     

Ø It reduces nearly all forms of air pollution compared to petroleum diesel. Thus, it reduces toxic containing and cancer causing compounds along with the root associated with diesel exhaust.

Ø It also reduces greenhouse gases which contribute to global warming. Life cycle analysis of biodiesel production distribution and use show that biodiesel produces 78% less of CO2 than petroleum diesel fuel.         

Ø Biodiesel  being  used  as domestic;  renewable  source   of   energy  reduces  our   dependence  on oil  exploration   which  therefore  improves   our  nation  and    energy  security.

Ø Domestic  biodiesel  industry  will  help  to  provide  job  and  in  economic  development. 

Ø Biodiesel  is easy  to use  and  produce, it can  be used  in  existing  diesel  vehicle  and  engines.  

1.9   PALM KERNEL OIL AS BIODIESEL

Palm kernel oil (PKO) is edible plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis). Palm kernel oil, coconut oil, and palm oil are three of the few highly saturated vegetable fats. PKO, which is semi-solid at room temperature is more saturated and do not contain cholesterol (found in unrefined animal fats).

PKO is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol just like any other ordinary fat. It is high in saturated fatty acids about 80%. The oil palm gives its name to the 16 – carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid found in palm kernel oil and coconut oil; while kernel oil contains mainly lauric acid.

PKO is used to prepare biodiesel as either simply processed palm kernel oil mixed with petrodiesel or processed through transesterification to prepare a PKO methyl ester blend, which meets the international specification, with glycerin as a by-product. The actual process used to make biodiesel around the world varies between countries and the requirement of different export markets. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/palm_kernel_oil). The approximate concentration of fatty acids in PKO is shown in Table 1.2.

Palm kernel oil, like other vegetable oils can be used to produce biodiesel for internal combustion engines. Biodiesel has been promoted as a renewable source of energy that can reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Therefore, biodiesel is viewed as a measure to decrease the impact of the greenhouse effect and as a way of diversifying energy supplies to assist national energy security plan.

 

 

 

Table 1.2: Approximate Concentration of Fatty Acids in Palm Kernel Oil

TYPE OF FATTY ACID

PERCENTAGE (%)

Lauric acid – saturated C-12:0

48.5

Myristic – saturated C-14:0

17.0

Palmitic acid – saturated C-16:0

7.5

Capric acid – saturated C-10:0

5.0

Caprylic acid – saturated C-8:0

3.0

Stearic acid – saturated C-18:0

2.0

Oleic acid – saturated C-18:1

14.0

Linoleic acid – saturated C-18:2

1.5

Others

1.5

http://journeytofoever.org/biodiesel meth.html

The most important parameters affecting the physical and chemical properties of such oils are the stereochemistry of the double bonds of the fatty acid chains, their degree of unsaturation as well as the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acids.

Previous studies (the method described by Lang et al, 2001) have shown that palm kernel oil is non – drying oil rich in lauric acid (12:0) (with iodine value less than 100), contain a high percentage of saturated C-12 and C-14 fatty acids making it important for the production of surfactant and biodiesel.

Table 1.3: The physio-chemical parameters of PKO

Molecular weight

704

Density at 40oC

0.926

Saponification value (mgKOH/g)

250

Iodine value (gl2/10g)

83.49

Acid value (mgKOH/g)

8.4

 

1.10    AIMS OF THE STUDY

The major aim as regards this project work includes the following:

Ø To produce an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is environmentally friendly to substitute diesel obtained from petroleum processes.

Ø To determine the fuel properties of transesterified oil. These properties includes, Specific gravity (Kg/C), Kinematic viscosity (cSt), Pour point. (oC), Cloud point (oC), Base sediment and water (%), Total acid number (mgKOH/g).

1.11    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Ø To proffer another possible technique for the production of biodiesel using acid catalyzed mechanism other than base or enzyme catalyzed mechanism.

Ø To reduce pollution hazards and biodegradability of the consequences of petrodiesel to the environment.

Ø To help strengthen the nation’s economy, should petroleum fuel which is a non renewable resource be totally consumed or limited in supply.

Ø To help reduce our reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel.

Ø To extend the research methodology towards the use of agricultural raw materials for the purpose of this course as a source of energy.

1.12    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

There has been several analytical works on biodiesel production using base catalyzed mechanism (usually sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) or acid catalyzed mechanism (usually concentrated sulfuric acid). However, this research work is centered on the use of acid catalyst (concentrated sulphuric acid) to achieve the same result (biodiesel production). Therefore, this project seeks to establish an alternative suitable route to which biodiesel can be produced at a cheaper cost and environmentally friendly with increased qualities and characteristics of the fundamental parameters that are to be analyzed when compared to diesel produced from mineral or conventional oils.

 

1.13     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In this study, the production of biodiesel (FAME) from palm kernel oil (PKO) using concentrated sulphuric acid as catalyst will be presented. Statistical design of experiments will be used to accumulate and analyze information on the effect of process variables on the yield of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, rapidly and efficiently using minimum number of experiments.

As illustrated in the later section, this method was found superior than the conventional method of studying one variable at one time while keeping the rest constant. Optimization was then carried out to obtain the process variables that could lead to optimum yield of biodiesel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Order Complete Project