This project work is to study in depth the role of central bank in the development of Nigeria economy and its dividing into five chapters as follow. Chapter one, introduction to the study, purpose of the study, research methodology,  traces the background of central bank of Nigeria purpose, scope, aims and objective and significance of the study. Chapter two deals with review of related literature, here documented information about the subject mater are deal with example are the stages in the role of central bank problems and solutions prospects etc. chapter three is concerned with top management, middle management in the bank. And also the primary instrument to collect information and the pilot study which will use in this research methodology so as to ascertain its validity and reliability. And the historical background of the organization with the questionnaire. Chapter four deals with findings, exclusively with data presentation and analysis with testing hypothesis. Chapter five deal with summary, recommendation and conclusion.  




Title                                                                                                                             i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi - vii



1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Statement of the problem                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of hypothesis                                                                                 2

1.3       Objective of the study                                                                                    2

1.4       Significance of the study                                                                                2

1.5       Scope of the study                                                                                          2

1.6       Historical background of central bank of Nigeria                                          3

1.7       Definition of terms                                                                                         4



2.0       Review of literature                                                                                        5

2.1       Definition of bank and banking                                                                      5

2.2       The origin of money                                                                                        5

2.3       The origin of banking                                                                                      6

2.4       The emergence of British bank for West African major

function and management                                                                              7

2.5       Central bank of Nigeria brief 2012 series                                                       7

2.6       Ordinances setting up of the central of Nigeria                                              8

2.7       Central bank as an apex bank                                                                         8

2.8       Central bank in Nigeria                                                                                   10

2.9       Prospects in the economy development of Nigeria                                        10

2.10     Central bank of Nigeria and foreign exchange                                               10

2.11     Effects of central bank in economic development of Nigeria                        11

2.12     Monetary policy application in economic development of Nigeria                12


3.0       Research methodology                                                                                   14

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                    14

3.2       Population size                                                                                                14

3.3       Sampling size                                                                                                  14

3.4       Method of data collection                                                                              14

3.5       Sources of data collection                                                                               15

3.6       Data analysis techniques                                                                                 15

3.7       Limitation of data collection                                                                          15



4.0       Data presentation and analysis                                                                       16

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                    16

4.2       Presentation and analysis of data                                                                   16

4.3       Response of personal interview                                                                      21

4.4       Testing of hypothesis                                                                                      21



5.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation                                                   24

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         24

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      24

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          24

            References                                                                                                      26

            Appendix                                                                                                        27         









A country economic development depends on its industrialization process; this can be done by giving priority to certain areas of the economy such as Banking, Agriculture Housing and Industry because these have contributed immensely to because to the development of any nation.

This led to the establishment of Central Bank of Nigeria by the government which specified responsibility is to provide the basic ingredient for rapid economy development.

Central Bank of Nigeria exists to speed up the country economics development control. The task of economic development and economic growth shall be paramount as such we need to harness all available resources and means towards the economic development and the growth.

One of the major objectives of the past and present Nigeria government is therefore for a country to have stable economy and attain economic growth. One of these vehicles that can be used to achieve these is the role played by central bank on ecomony of the nation.

In Nigeria the central bank undertakes functions on both types of institution especially the banks through the application of various and regulatory measure. The subject of this study dealing as it does on those relationships is there tropical and will address a numbers of many issues on monetary, banking policy and economic development. The analysis of the study some findings and recommendation were given to the banks and financial institution with moral support.

The researcher concluded by saying that the Central Bank of Nigeria played important role in the economy development of Nigeria.


1.1       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM                  

The researcher wish to find out the problems encounter by the Centre Bank of Nigeria; in the economy development of Nigeria as following:

a.                   The challenges facing the Central Bank of Nigeria are not just the conventional responsibilities of controlling the nation’s total money supply or implementing the country’s monetary policy and interest rates.      

b.                  By regulating and supervising the banking industry as a whole the Central Bank of Nigeria is also involved in ensuring effective corporate governance, fostering systemic stability that should maintain public trust and overall confidence in the banking system.

c.                   Poor exporting primary good

d.                  Poor agricultural productivity in Nigeria

All the above problems are the reason why the Central Bank of Nigeria fails to achieve its aim and objective



The Hypothesis is:

Ho: The role played by Central Bank of Nigeria in the development of the Nigeria economy Nigeria does not reduce unemployment in Nigeria  

Hi: The role played by Central Bank of Nigeria in the development of the Nigeria economy reduces unemployment in Nigeria.  



Objective of this study includes:

a.       To critically analyze the Central Bank of Nigeria as regards the contribution on various ways the economic development of Nigeria.

b.      To study the measure taken by the Central Bank of Nigeria to control foreign exchange

c.       To critically identify the role of Central Bank of Nigeria in internal trade

d.      To examine how Central Bank of Nigeria serves as an apex and how it control their bank through it numerous monetary instruments impact of the Central Bank of Nigeria roles in Nigeria economic development.

e.       To critically identify the role of Central Bank of Nigeria in international trade

f.       To examine how Central Bank of Nigeria serve as an apex and how it control their through it numerous monetary instrument                  



The gains to be derived from this study cannot be over emphasized about the performances or the other financial for the development of the country. The operational problem of central bank of Nigeria senitized people the misconception help by the bank and other government can be exposed by the study.

The research would also be a source of information for bank investor and educationist.



The project shall actually concern the entire role of the central bank of Nigeria in the nation development. It take a broad view of the various aspect of the role and function of Central Bank of Nigeria, it also look at its position in banking, industry and various roles of the central bank of Nigeria as the primary function,  function banking habits and its system with its role in foreign trade insurance.

Finally, the study will consider the importance of the current measure of the Central Bank of Nigeria toward the cutting down the rate of the inflation in Nigeria.


The background lies in the characteristics and different monetary systems which recedes it this was the West African Currency Board (WACD)

The WACB was established in 1912, following the recommendation of the eminent communities appointed by the British Colonial Authorities to study ways and means of dealing with basic necessities, one of way financing the need of the African and the other was the eradication of the confused.

In convenient and unsatisfactory currency position in British West African, in colonial office memorandum of 12th December, 1912 although they underwent a series of amendment in 1915, 1923 and 1947 the regulation were designed to issued a West African Currency Government might share in the profit of the currency issued. In effect the WACB was changed with four main functions.

a.                   Issue of the West African countries

b.                  It exchanges for existing currencies

c.                   The expatriation of its existing currencies

d.                  The investment of its reserve

The history of central bank of Nigeria it was established by the Central Bank of Nigeria Act of 1958 and commenced operation on July 1, 1987

The major regulatory objectives of the bank as stated in the Central Bank of Nigeria act of 1958 is to maintain the external reserve of the country, promote monetary stability and a sound financial environment and to act as a banker of last resort and financial adviser to the federal government the financial government. The central bank’s role as lender of last resort and adviser to the federal government has sometimes pushed it into murky regulatory waters. After the end of colonial rule, the desire of the government to become pro – active in the development of the economy became visible especially after the end of the Nigeria Civil War; the bank followed the government’s desire and took a determined effort to supplement any short falls in credit allocation to the real sector.

The bank soon became involved in lending directly to consumer, contravening its original intention to work through commercial banks in activities involving consumer lending. However, the policy was an offspring of the indigenization policy at the time. Nevertheless, the government through the central bank has been actively involved in building the nation’s money and equity centers forming securities regulatory board and introducing treasury instruments into the capital market.

The WACB rigorously discharge those functions however, it was characterized by three elements falls partly of local currency with starting coverage, these characteristics is straight and according to them, the system had advantages for Nigeria to detect but the detect where neither small nor have little practical application

In the first place, the currencies issued were not an expatriate sterling a dependent currency in all British pounds.

Beside its automatic link worth starting of the British pounds indeed wherever its virtues had no room for monetary management. Another short coming of the WACB it did nothing to the African in the acts of monetary management or develops indigenous banks and their financial institutions.

Finally because the WACB invested all its reserves in oversea London although there was no legal obligation to on local investment out let was develop.


1.7       DEFINITION OF TERM                                

To successfully carryout the write up of this project, it would be necessary to define certain basic concepts.

A bank: This is a financial institution duly incorporated under the company and allied matter decree not being carried out there in         

Central Bank: This is a financial institution set up by government to cater for keeping of government money and issuing of currencies and overall direct flow in and out of the money in circulation.

Economics: This is the scientific study of people and their institutions and consuming goods and services and how they face the problem of making resources.

Expatriate Banks: These are foreign banks operating in the country they provide service to Nigerians but their ownership belong to the foreigners.

Currency: This is the system of money that country uses example, naira and kobo are being used in Nigeria

Legal Tender: This is the currency that is backed up law to be used as medium of exchanged settlement of debt, unit of account and measure of value etc.

Monetary policies: These are policies designed to control the quality price and direction of money supply in pursuit of national economic goals.

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