Since the attainment of independence by Nigeria in October, 1960, the country's external relations with the outside world have been conducted by career and non-career officials either as Ministers or Secretaries of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs or External the hub of Nigeria's diplomatic interactions with the rest of the world. Among the many Nigerians that have headed the Foreign Affairs Ministry is Joseph Garvin Garba.

As a minister of Nigeria's foreign relations and later permanent representative at the United Nations Organization, Garba worked assiduously to promote Nigeria's international image. This work, therefore, seeks to examine the impact of Garba on Nigeria's external relations. The work comprises five chapters. The first is the introductory chapter while literature review is in chapter two. The evolution and development of Nigeria's foreign policy is examined in chapter three while the fourth chapter assesses the role of Joseph Garba in Nigeria's foreign policy. The fifth chapter concludes the work.









Title Page                                                    i

Certification                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                          iv

Abstract                                                     v

Table of Contents                                                       vi




1.1    Introduction                                                                          1

1.2    Background to the Study                                                    1

1.3    Statement of the problem                                                   2

1.4    Aims and Objectives                                                                    3

1.5    Significance of study                                                                    4

1.6    Research Methodology                                                      5

1.7    Scope of study                                                                     5

1.8    Definition of terms                                                              5




2.1    Foreign Policy                                                                      7

          Note and References                                                          




3.1     The Origin of Nigeria’s foreign Policy                                     23

3.2     The Promotion and Defence of World Peace                           24

3.3     The Objectives of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy                                       26

3.4     The Determinations of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy                     29

3.5     External Environment of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy External 35

3.6     Psychological (Perception) Threshold                                     36

3.7     Aims and Principles of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy                     37

3.8     Foreign Policy Making in Nigeria                                            39

3.9     Conclusion                                                                              41

          Note and References                                                     




4.1     Garba Joseph Garven                                                              43

4.2     The Role of Joseph Garven Garba in Nigeria’s Foreign          45

4.3     An Assessment of Joe Garba on Nigeria’s Foreign Policy      51

          Note and References




5.1     Summary                                                                                 60

5.2     Conclusion                                                                              62











1.1    Introduction

The attainment of independence by Nigeria on October 1, 1960 marked the end of colonialism and also gave Nigerian political leaders the opportunity to participate actively in the formulation and implementation of the country's foreign policy. It would be recalled that while colonialism lasted in Nigeria in particular and in Africa in general, the art of formulating and implementing foreign policies was the exclusive preserve of the colonial masters. It is little wonder therefore that the foreign policy which many countries adopted during the dark years of colonialism were dictated as in the case of Nigeria and other English speaking West African countries by the imperial office in London.

Nevertheless, there is the need to also distinguish between foreign policy and domestic policy. While foreign policy refers to the policy a country adopts towards another, domestic policies are designed to attend to domestic issues. Both forms of policies are however constrained by the domestic environment and the fluidity that characterize the international system. The Nigeria foreign policy has followed the above pattern since 1960.


1.2    Background to the Study

The formulation and implementation of Nigeria's foreign policy since 1960 when the country gained independence from Britain has been fraught with problems that border more importantly on the newness of the country's foreign policy makers in the international system. The fact that it was not until 1958 that the British started training Nigerians who eventually took over the making and implementation of Nigeria's foreign policy accounts greatly for the conservative and dynamic nature of Nigeria's foreign policy in the decade following Nigeria's independence. The fact that Nigeria only moralized her policies without pursuing and achieving same left the country's foreign policy principles open to abuse by policy experts. Nevertheless, the principles of Nigeria's foreign policy as enunciated by the country's first prime minister, Sir Tafawa Abubakar Balewa, such as sovereign equity of states, inviolability of the territorial integrity of member states, Africa as the centerpiece of Nigeria's. Foreign policy and multilateralism have remained the cornerstone of Nigeria's independence since 1960 although some of them have undergone some level of modification under the various political leaders that have ruled Nigeria since independence.


1.3   Statement of the Problem

There is a consensus among Nigeria foreign policy practitioners that the military regime of Muritala Mohammed and Olusegun Obasanjo was more dynamic and empirical in the: formulation and implementation of Nigeria's foreign policy. Apparently relating to the environment it found itself; the Muritala Obasanjo regime went about Nigeria's foreign policy in' a simpler manner in line with stated' objectives. The regime's commitment to the eradication of colonialism in all its ramifications was total and most times earned it the wrath of western imperialists. It would be recalled that at the time the Muritala/Obasanjo ·administration came to power, countries like' Angola, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Apartheid South Africa were engaged in war of independence with' their colonial masters. The appointment of Joe Garba as minister of foreign affairs by the regime helped it in its crusade against the colonization powers in Africa. Garba's penchant to see Africa free from colonialism was in line with the zeal of both Muritala and Obasanjo who in various ways vowed their opposition to colonial rule in the African continent. Garba was a quintessential man who craves for excellence and achievement accounted hugely for the success of the foreign policies of Muritala and Obasanjo.


1.4    Aims and Objectives

The work will aim to look at the contribution of Joe Garba to the formulation and implementation. of Nigeria's foreign policy in his capacity as the Minister of Foreign Affairs under the Muritala/Obasanjo regime and as Nigeria's permanent representative at the United Nations General Assembly. The specific objective of this work will be on the impact of Joe Garba on Nigeria's foreign policy in line with the country's foreign policy principles and philosophy. In our highly interdependent world, essentially constitute the domain of foreign policy. If we may define foreign policy very schematically and provisionally as those actions of a state that are designed to achieve particular objectives involving other actors beyond the states' own boundaries we see clearly that the foreign policies of states are the sinews of international relations. It is difficult to conceive of these relation existing entirely independently of the cross currents of the foreign policies of state actors on the international arena.

The totality of the deliberate steps, measure or stances adopted by a state in its interaction with others state or international organization is known as foreign policy. Wolfram P. Handrieder defined foreign policy as a "coordinated strategy with which institutionally designated decision makers seek to manipulate the international environment in an effort to achieve their national objectives." Handrieder's definition is helpful in the sense that it positions a linkage between the domestic and external environment as far as foreign policy is concerned. This definition also "makes it clear that policy decisions are made by state functionaries on behalf of the state. In the conduct of foreign policy, the ultimate purpose is to protect the security of states, enhance the social economic and political welfare of the citizens, and maintain without which development is hardly possible.


1.5   Significance of Study

1.     To study Nigeria's foreign policy before the coming of Joe Garba.

2.     To show the role played by Joe Garba in Nigeria's foreign policy in his capacity as Nigeria's External Affairs Commissioner and Permanent Representative to the United Nations.

3.     The work will serve as a reference point to teachers and students in international relations interested in the contribution of Joe Garba in Nigeria's foreign policy.



1.6    Research Methodology

The research will be written with materials obtained from secondary sources. Thus, textbooks, monographs, journals, newspapers and magazines will be given prominence in this work.


1.7    Scope of study

This work examines Nigeria's foreign policy under Joe Garba as Nigeria's Commissioner for External Relations and Permanent Representative. It also looks at the structural changes that took place in the External Affairs Ministry or the United Nations Organisation and their impact on the making and implementation of Nigeria's foreign policy under Joe Garba. Also, the work also appraises the contributions of Garba to the .growth and development of Nigeria's foreign policy.


1.8    Definition of terms

Foreign Policy: Foreign policy may be conceived as embracing the following definitions:

A set of carefully articulated goals and objectives which a nation-state seeks to realize and actualize in the conduct of its relationships with other state;

A set of decision made and action taken by a state in its interactions with other state;

A series of demands which a nation-state makes on other state in the international system;

A series of responses which a nation-state offers to the demands which other state put before it.

Note and References

1.     Idang, J.G.I. Nigeria's Internal Politics and Foreign Policy 1960-1966 (Ibadan, Ibadan University Press, 1973), p. 678.

2.     Emmanuel, 0.0. "Public Opinion and the conduct of Nigerian Foreign Policy" in Hassan A.S. (ed.) Selected Themes in Nigerian Foreign Policy and International Relations (Boring, Sally and Sally Associates, (1999).

Order Complete Project