THE ROLE OF NIGERIA POLICE FORCE TOWARDS EFFECTIVE SECURITY ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE POLICE COMMAND)


Content

ABSTRACT

Criminality has become part and parcel of human nature and society. That is 'why no society can claim to be completely free of crimes. One of the major objectives of police is to tackle the problem of the pervasive negative perception by a large segment of the public. Yet, the tasks of police security administration and crime prevention and detection as well as prosecution of offenders cannot be successfully performed without the cooperation of the public. The challenges of national security by the Nigeria police force have been made more complex by a number of factors, like ethnic diversity, plurality of religions, economic down-turn and unemployment, our recently enthroned democracy and the accompanying release of bottled up emotions from years of repression of the civil population under military governance.

 

Attempt was made to employ the use of survey research design and systematic random probability technique was utilized so as to facilitate the sourcing of primary data through the use of questionnaire and personal interview from the field. From the study, three hypotheses was tested which help us to arrive at a more logical and reliable findings, through the aid of Simple Mean (x) and Average. More so, from the hypotheses tested in the study, the result obtained from the three hypotheses tested revealed that out of the three hypotheses tested two of the alternative hypotheses (HI) was accepted while the null hypotheses (Hs) was completely rejected. The results imply that there is a significant relationship between the Nigeria Police Force and Security Administration in Nigeria.

 

From the findings of the study, conclusion and useful recommendations were made. The recommendations here are based on the findings from the study which is believed will elicit the attention of the government, the Nigeria police command and the reading public towards improving on the Nigeria police force in fostering effective security administration through attitudinal re-orientation (appropriate selection criteria, proper and adequate training and considerably improved police salary and conditions of service) to achieve a long-lasting solution is eminent. It is concluded that even if all the suggestions offered could be implemented with a magic wand, they will not yield results "over-night" as the problems and obstacles involved date back to the 1930S. The problems and obstacles in the way of effective/efficient policing and law-enforcement in the country, the present governmental and police leadership should conceptualize its policy options now, start executing these soonest, and expect results in phased-terms.


TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statements of Research Problem

1.3       Objectives of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Statement of Research Hypotheses

1.6       Scope and Limitations of the Study

1.7       Significance of the Study

1.8       Definition of Major Terms

1.9       Organization of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.0       Introduction

2.1       Conceptual Framework

2.1.1   Objectives of Nigeria Police Force

2.1.2   Major Yardsticks for Measuring Successful Policing

2.1.3   Causes and Cost of the Rising Rate of Crime in Nigeria

2.1.4   Nigeria Security Issues and Sustainable Democracy

2.1.5   Measures of Combating Corruption within & Outside the

Nigeria Police Force.

2.1.6   Police Accountability& Security Administration in Nigeria

2.1.7   Inter-Agency Cooperation for Effective Crime Control in Nigeria

2.1.8   The Impact of Police Check Points on Crime and Community in Nigeria

2.1.9   Evaluation of the Input and Output Performance of Nigeria Police Force

2.1.10 Public-Private Partnership in the Fight against Crime in Nigeria

2.1.11 Challenges and Prospect of the Nigeria Police Force

2.2       Theoretical Framework

 

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0       Introduction

3.1       Restatement of Research Question and Hypotheses

3.2       Research Design

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Procedure

3.5       Data Collection Instruments

3.6       Administration of Data Collection Instrument

3.7       Procedure for Data Analysis

3.8       Limitation of the Methodology

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.0       Introduction

4.1       Respondents Characteristics and Classification

4.2       Presentation and Analysis of Data According to Research Questions

4.3       Presentation and Analysis of Data According to Test of Hypotheses

4.4       Discussion of Findings

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0       Introduction

5.1       Summary of findings

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations

5.4       Suggestion for Further Study

Reference/Bibliography

Appendix



CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Criminality has become part and parcel of human nature and society. That is 'why no society can claim to be completely free of crimes. But the types of criminal behaviour tend to follow the pattern of social and economic development of a given society Bashir (2002). It is therefore not unexpected that a society at a low level of development tends to experience an upsurge in the rate of violent crimes such as armed robbery, politically motivated killings, the use of illegal weapons, ethnic and religious clashes and the like. What is worrisome; however, is that 'the police which 'are meant to be the antidote to criminality appears to be getting overwhelmed by the phenomenon. The criminals appear to be ahead of' hee police such that the latter now only react to the commission of crimes and usually after the offenders might have left the scene (Aguolu, 2000).

 

One of the major objectives of police is to tackle the problem of the pervasive negative perception by a large segment of the public. Yet, the tasks of crime prevention and detection as well as prosecution 'of offenders cannot be successfully performed without the cooperation of the public.

 

In addition to the complaint earlier referred to, there are institutional constraints, which contribute to the uncomplimentary image of the police and thereby undermining their capacity to deliver efficient crime control and policing services. Akano (2004), noted that these include inadequate manpower, lack of expertise, lack of adequate equipment, low level of education, low morale, shabby appearance, lack of training facilities and poor conditions of service of the average police man.

 

Nigeria's police began with a (30) thirty-member consular guard formed in Lagos Colony in 1861. In 1879 a 1,200-lneniber armed paramilitary Hausa Constabulary was formed. In 1896 the Lagos Police was established. A similar force, the Niger Coast Constabulary, was formed in Calabar in 1894 under the newly proclaimed Niger Coast Protectorate. Likewise, in the north, the Royal Niger Company set up the Royal Niger Company Constabulary in 1888 with headquarters at Lokoja. When the protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were proclaimed in the early 1900S, part of the Royal Niger Company Constabulary became the Northern Nigeria Police, and part of the Niger Coast Constabulary became the Southern Nigeria Police. Northern and Southern Nigeria were amalgamated in 1914, but their police forces were not' merged until 1930, forming the NPF, headquartered in Lagos. During the colonial period, most police were associated with local governments (native authorities). In the 1960s, under the First Republic, these forces were first regionalized and then nationalized.

 

The NPF ‘performed conventional police functions and was responsible for internal security generally; for supporting the prison, immigration, and customs services; and for performing military in Inid-1980 to expand the force to 200,000. By 1983, according to the federal budget, the strength of the NPF was almost 152,000, but other sources estimated it to be between 20,000 and 80,000. They were often deployed throughout the country, but in 1989 Babangida announced that a larger number of officers would be posted to their native areas to facilitate police- community relations (Bashir, 2002).

The NPF was under the general operational and administrative control of an Inspector-general appointed by the president and responsible for the maintenance of law and order. He was supported at headquarters in Lagos by a deputy inspector general and in each state by police commissioners. The 1999 constitution further improved on .the 1979 constitution providing for a Police Service Commission that was responsible for NPF policy, organization, administration, and finance (except for pensions).

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

It has been observed by majority of Nigerians that the Nigeria Police Force seems not to have performed at an optimum level in marshalling security administration in Nigeria owing to problems relating to inadequacies, mismanagement, embezzlement, poor policy framework and deplorable incentive packages. There is abundant official and research confirmation of this assertion, apart from information in the daily newspapers, and there is no need to "prove" the non-optimum performance of the Nigeria Police Force in the present contribution. Rather, what is needed is to further identify other major inadequacies, problems and obstacles that may be responsible for the situation. And these may be grouped into three categories: logistics inadequacies; human problems; and obstacles external to the Force, these identified problems serves as the key motive that set the pace for the research study, as follow:

 

Logistics .inadequacies, material inputs in terms of funding, crime-prevention/control, detection, investigation, traffic control and accident-prevention, communication and data gathering research needs are not only inadequate but are unrealistic as well. The authorities of the Nigeria Police Force have always provided the technical details of these logistic inadequacies, even if sometimes exaggerated for obvious reasons.

 

Human problems, had the quality of the human or personnel resources of the Force been optimum? The logistics inadequacies might have been partially ameliorate. In other words, the Nigeria Police Force has human problems which may have not only, aggravated its logistics insufficiencies, but are also" of tremendous adverse import on its general performance from one day to the next. Improper inefficient and, sometimes corrupt and nepotistic methods of recruitment; insufficient length of training-period and attention in training recruits for the "rank and file"; discourtesy, non-challant attitude to reports of citizen complaints, dishonesty, corruption, abuse or misuse of the authority to arrest, detain or use force by a substantial number of policemen on the streets, in the station, etc.

 

Absence of an overall crime-prevention/ control policy, body and planning; Political interference and the feeling of accountability by the Force to the "government of the day" rather than to the rule of law and the people (i.e. a carryover from the colonial period and the succeeding military regimes); a materialistic, greedy, corrupt and indiscipline socio-economic environment (i.e. a society gets what police force deserves); and the burdensome character of our inherited legal system (from the substantive and procedural law through justice administration to offender-correction) which has never been meaningfully or social-scientifically reviewed to make justice "real" rather than "technical".

 

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

(i)      To evaluate the correlation between the Nigeria Police Force and security administration in Nigeria.

(ii)     To ascertain the inadequacies of logistics and police mandate in crime-prevention.

(iii)    To investigate- the extent at which corrupt and nepotistic methods of recruitment hampers effective police security administration in Nigeria.

(iv)    To examine the absence of an overall crime prevention/control policy and poor security administration by the Nigeria police force.  

(v)     To provide useful recommendations on how to improve security administration through effective and proactive policing in Nigeria.

 

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

(i).   Is there any correlation between the Nigeria Police Force and security administration in Nigeria?

(ii).  Does the inadequacies of logistics hinders police mandate in crime-prevention?

(iii)  To what extent does corrupt and nepotistic methods of recruitment hampers effective police Nigeria?

(iv)    Does the absence of an overall crime-prevention/control policy hampers poor security administration by the Nigeria police force?

 

1.5    STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Ho  =    There is no correlation between the Nigeria Police Force and security administration.

H1 =   There is correlation between the Nigeria Police Force and security administration .

Ho =    The inadequacies of logistics does not hinders police mandate in crime-prevention.

H1 =    The inadequacies of logistics hinders police mandate in crime-­prevention.

Ho =  Corrupt and nepotistic methods of recruitment does not hampers effective police security administration in Nigeria.

H1 =   Corrupt and nepotistic methods of recruitment hampers effective police security administration in Nigeria.

 

 

 

1.6    SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Notwithstanding the good intentions of any meaningful project, it is however difficult for a researcher to successfully obtain and be able to manage the numerous variables that are supposed to be observed.

 

As a result of time constraint and the eventual cost of carrying out this study, a comprehensive study of the "Role of the Nigeria Police Force towards "Effective Security Administration in Nigeria" will not be possible, since the study will lay emphasis on the Akinpelu Divisional Head Quarters, Bolade Oshodi, Lagos. In view of the above constraints mentioned, the study will cover certain sections/departments of the organization - the relationship between and/or among the department- and the degree of movement of staff in and out of the organization will be observe in the course of the study.

 

1.7   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study cannot be over emphasize as the following people are bound to benefit from the findings of this study.

 

This study is significant to the researcher in that, it has exposed the researcher to identify possible causes of crime in the Nigeria society with the view to advising organizations, governments, individuals and security agencies and stakeholders on possible ways to reduce crime rate and as well as engendering effective security administration by the Nigerian Police Force and other Paramilitary Organizations.

 

The society at large including management of organization, the reading public, other researchers, students, scholars and other upcoming student in this field of study can always benefit from the various recommendations enlisted, which the researcher hope will receive considerable attention, so as to reduce the alarming rate of crime in the Nigeria economy, thereby enabling the Nigerian Police Force to contribute meaningfully towards economic development effectively and efficiently.

 

1.8    DEFINITION OF MAJOR TERMS

Police Force: Is an institution set by government to combat crime ranging from theft-burglary, as well as to prevent, control and combat criminality, and to maintain public order and peace.

Security Administration: This refers to the prerogative of the government to marshal and put in place institutionalized framework to administer the regressive upheavals and menace in the society through the Nigeria Police Force.

Performance: This is the measures through which the Nigeria Police Force mandate to administer security are been evaluated in line with their fight against criminality and social order in the society.

Crime: It refers to serious offences, act that breaks the law, illegal act that utter the sanctity, orderliness, threat to life and properties in all spheres of human inhabitations.

 

1.9    ORGANIZATION/PLAN OF THE STUDY

The research work will be divided into five chapters:

Chapter one is the introduction part, which covers the background of the study, statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, research hypotheses, and significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, definition of terms and organization of the study .

 

Chapter two contains the literature review and theoretical framework. In this chapter the views relating to the study of early writers on the topic are considered imperative.

 

Chapter three contains the research methodology which covers the research method (instrument) or approach, the population of the study, the sample and technique, the method of data collection and the method for data analyses and interpretation. Chapter four contains the data presentation, analysis and interpretation. In this chapter, the data gathered from the respondents will be presented, analyzed and interpreted. Chapter five contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation based on the results' in chapter four.


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