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- THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH (A STUDY OF POWER HOLDING COMPANY OF NIGERIA)
- EFFECT OF TRADE AND FINANCE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (A CASE OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA)
- THE EFFECT OF TRADE AND FINANCE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA)
- A SURVEY OF CHALLENGES IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC SCHOOLS IN OTA ADO-ODO OTA LGA, OGUN STATE
- THE ROLE OF FISCAL POLICIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA)
- THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA)
- A SURVEY OF CHALLENGES IN THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC SCHOOLS IN OTA ADO-ODO OTA LGA, OGUN STATE
THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES AND THE CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA)
In chapter one the writer discussed statement of problem, purpose of study, significance of study, limitation of study, scope of study, and methodology.
In chapter two the writer explained literature review using various authors. In chapter three the writer examined the history of Nigeria, Nigeria as a third world country.
In chapter four She enumerated the meaning of imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, she also highlighted dependency, technological development, industrialization, globalization, population, human sources, education/research development etc.
In chapter five the writer summarized, recommended and concluded the study.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of Content vi
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 2
1.3 Purpose of Study 2
1.4 Significance of Study 4
1.5 Scope of Study 4
1.6 Limitation of the Study 5
1.7 Methodology 6
Notes and References 7
LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Definition of Development 8
2.2 What is underdevelopment? 11
3.1 The History of Nigeria 17
3.2 Nigeria as a Third World (Underdeveloped or Developing
Notes and References 28
CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT 30
4.1 Imperialism, colonialism, Neo-Colonialism 30
4.2 Dependency 35
4.3 Technological Development/Industrialization 37
4.4 Globalization 40
4.5 Population 43
4.6 Human Resources 44
4.7 Education/Research and Development 47
4.8 Research and Development 51
4.9 External Influence 53
4.10 The Role of Government 55
Notes and References 58
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary 60
5.2 Recommendation 61
5.3 Conclusion 68
Notes and References 69
Primary Sources 70
Secondary Sources 71
The expression "third world" which one often comes across in development literature as well as in public discourse, came into use in 1956 to imply that the countries covered by it depends either on the capitalist or the socialist system and therefore that they belong to neither the former two worlds the developed capitalist or the developed communist.
It is also termed a collective term of French origin taken up by American writers, for those states not regarded themselves as members of either the developed capitalist or developed communist. In fact, first came up in connection with Bandung Conference and other attempts (especially by Nehru, Surkano and Nasser) to bring together the internationally aligned countries sharing the same characteristics. They are thus classified by their state of economic development as 'underdeveloped', less developed or developing states.
The third world, includes most of the countries of Latin America and recently independent states of Asia with exclusion of Mainland China and Taiwan and Africa except South Africa.
There is also OECD enumeration which includes Turkey and the poor countries. of southern Europe. Many of these share a colonial past and strong resentment against imperialism. Hence the so called third world is no more than the backyard of imperialism.
As a concept, it groups together the under-developed countries exploited by imperialism under a special heading implying at least that they comprise a special area within the imperialist camp.
Furthermore, they are poor and largely over-populated with population explosion and are growing poorer by comparison with the industrialized nations in foreign policy, following the Indian example as many to them favoured to be neutral (non-aligned). It should be of note that they form one-third of the United nations membership. Also, it should be noted that, more recently, some writer have begun to distinguish between the third world, which they confine to those developing countries with rich natural resources such as the oil producing states of the Middle East and the fourth world which are counted as underdeveloped countries which have no such resources and little, if any, prospect of development. All in all, third world evokes the feeling in one to acknowledge that their emancipation is a necessity.
Walter Rodney ascribes that "development in human society is a many sided process". At the level of the individual, it implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self discipline, responsibility and material well being. Development is often synonymous with modernization. It has been defined as a widely participatory process of social and material advancement (including greater equality, freedom and other values) for the majority of the people through gaining greater control of their environment. Berger sees development as good growth; and desirable modernization because, according to him, the values that need to be injected into the definition are those that aim at minimizing human costs.
Development is the desirable discourse to be taken by human being in a particular situation. It aims at the satisfaction of man's economic and socio-cultural --needs in the most effective and rational way. These include economic development, human development, physical quality of life, human freedom, gender related development and gender empowerment.
Challenges of development that have characterized the 'third world' countries, should not be over stressed. These include imperialism (exploitation-suppressive development plan by the exploiting developed capitalist nations), neo - colonialism, dependency, industrialization, human resources, poverty and pollution, increased burden of government and governance, lack of freedom, alienation, disease, research and development, education, intra expert group conflict. Technological Organization - IMF, World Bank to mention but a few.
1.2 STATE OF PROBLEM
The major problem to be addressed in this study is the 'third world' countries and the challenges of development with Nigeria as a case study. The work will cover the following:
i. Examine what constitutes third world countries.
ii. What is underdevelopment and development?
iii. What are the challenges that third world countries are going through in terms of development.
iv. How does these affect Nigeria as a third world country?
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The objective or purpose of this study is to;
(i) Know which countries make up the 'third world' or underdeveloped
(ii) Know what development is and developed countries.
(iii) Discuss the challenges of development in third world countries.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The ultimate goals and target of the study are therefore directed to enable countries, students and stake-holders, and the world at large to:
i. Understand third world countries of underdeveloped Countries
ii. Understand the reason why the countries are not developed
iii. Understand those challenges that have impeded development and how they can affect Nigeria as a third world country despite her richness in petroleum recourses.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study is limited to third world countries and the challenges of development. Nigeria is used as a case- study because of the fact that she is a third world country and to avoid ambiguity.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The problem of shortage of time in carrying out the research. So, it becomes very difficult for the researcher to research in a wider scope. Therefore, the information contained therein, is limited, to the space of time allowed.
With the present bad economy and financial problem in Nigeria today, funds is not enough for the research work in all the various areas mentioned.
Finally, there also shortage of research centre and workshops and materials. So the research will be based on the much information available within reach.
Since methodology is a very important component of the research, efforts will be made to apply the relevant methodology that will be suitable for the study. For example, primary and secondary materials will be used. Other relevant methods will be applied to gather necessary materials of the completion of the work.
NOTES AND REFERENCES
1. G.O. Unanka: National Developed Approaches And Prospective. All-
Ages, Owerri, Nigeria 2001 p81.
2. Alan Bullock and _ Oliver Stallyrass (Eds): The Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought. Harpe and Row London, 1977 p.634
3. Opcit Unanka p. 81.
4. Opcit Alan Qy)lock and Oliver –ST allybrass
5. A. Waltr Rodney: How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Bogleh O' Ouverture London and Tanzania publishing House Da-re-Salaam, 1976 p.9.
6. Berger P.C. Pyramids Sacrifice. Anchor Broks New York 1976 p.59