In chapter one the writer discussed statement of problem, purpose of study, significance of study, limitation of study, scope of study, and methodology.

In chapter two the writer explained literature review using various authors. In chapter three the writer examined the history of Nigeria, Nigeria as a third world country.

In chapter four She enumerated the meaning of imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, she also highlighted dependency, technological development, industrialization, globalization, population, human sources, education/research development  etc.

In chapter five the writer summarized, recommended and concluded the study.












Title page                                                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                                                           ii

Dedication                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                                                   v

Table of Content                                                                                                   vi



1.1      Introduction                                                                                              1

1.2      Statement of Problem                                                                             2

1.3      Purpose of Study                                                                                     2

1.4      Significance of Study                                                                               4

1.5      Scope of Study                                                                                           4

1.6      Limitation of the Study                                                                          5

1.7      Methodology                                                                                             6

            Notes and References                                                                             7



LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                    8

2.1      Definition of Development                                                                   8

2.2      What is underdevelopment?                                                               11



3.1      The History of Nigeria                                                                            17

3.2      Nigeria as a Third World (Underdeveloped or Developing          

Country)                                                                                                      23

            Notes and References                                                                             28



CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPMENT                                                             30

4.1      Imperialism, colonialism, Neo-Colonialism                                   30

4.2      Dependency                                                                                               35

4.3      Technological Development/Industrialization                            37

4.4      Globalization                                                                                              40

4.5      Population                                                                                                  43

4.6      Human Resources                                                                                   44

4.7      Education/Research and Development                                          47

4.8      Research and Development                                                                 51

4.9      External Influence                                                                                   53

4.10   The Role of Government                                                                       55

            Notes and References                                                                             58




5.1      Summary                                                                                                    60

5.2      Recommendation                                                                                    61

5.3      Conclusion                                                                                                  68

            Notes and References                                                                             69

            Bibliography                                                                                              70

            Primary Sources                                                                                       70

            Secondary Sources                                                                                  71




The expression "third world" which one often comes across in development literature as well as in public discourse, came into use in 1956 to imply that the countries covered by it depends either on the capitalist or the socialist system and therefore that they belong to neither the former two worlds the developed capitalist or the developed communist.

It is also termed a collective term of French origin taken up by American writers, for those states not regarded themselves as members of either the developed capitalist or developed communist. In fact, first came up in connection with Bandung Conference and other attempts (especially by Nehru, Surkano and Nasser) to bring together the internationally aligned countries sharing the same characteristics. They are thus classified by their state of economic development as 'underdeveloped', less developed or developing states.           

The third world, includes most of the countries of Latin America and recently independent states of Asia with exclusion of Mainland China and Taiwan and Africa except South Africa.

There is also OECD enumeration which includes Turkey and the poor countries. of southern Europe. Many of these  share a colonial past and strong resentment against imperialism. Hence the so called third world is no more than the backyard of imperialism.

As a concept, it groups together the under-developed countries exploited by imperialism under a special heading implying at least that they comprise a special area within the imperialist camp.

Furthermore, they are poor and largely over-populated with population explosion and are growing poorer by comparison with the industrialized nations in foreign policy, following the Indian example as many to them favoured to be neutral (non-aligned). It should be of note that they form one-third of the United nations membership. Also, it should be noted that, more recently, some writer have begun to distinguish between the third world, which they confine to those developing countries with rich natural resources such as the oil producing states of the Middle East and the fourth world which are counted as underdeveloped countries which have no such resources and little, if any, prospect of development. All in all, third world evokes the feeling in one to acknowledge that their emancipation is a necessity.

Walter Rodney ascribes that "development in human society is a many sided process". At the level of the individual, it implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self discipline, responsibility and material well being. Development is often synonymous with modernization. It has been defined as a widely participatory process of social and material advancement (including greater equality, freedom and other values) for the majority of the people through gaining greater control of their environment. Berger sees development as good growth; and desirable modernization because, according to him, the values that need to be injected into the definition are those that aim at minimizing human costs.

Development is the desirable discourse to be taken by human being in a particular situation. It aims at the satisfaction of man's economic and socio-cultural --needs in the most effective and rational way. These include economic development, human development, physical quality of life, human freedom, gender related development and gender empowerment.

Challenges of development that have characterized the 'third world' countries, should not be over stressed. These include imperialism (exploitation-suppressive development plan by the exploiting developed capitalist nations), neo - colonialism, dependency, industrialization, human resources, poverty and pollution, increased burden of government and governance, lack of freedom, alienation, disease, research and development, education, intra expert group conflict. Technological Organization - IMF, World Bank to mention but a few.




The major problem to be addressed in this study is the 'third world' countries and the challenges of development with Nigeria as a case           study. The work will cover the following:

i.          Examine what constitutes third world countries.

ii.         What is underdevelopment and development?

iii.       What are the challenges that third world countries are going through in terms of development.

iv.       How does these affect Nigeria as a third world country?



The objective or purpose of this study is to;

(i)       Know which countries make up the 'third world' or underdeveloped


(ii)      Know what development is and developed countries.

(iii)     Discuss the challenges of development in third world countries.



The ultimate goals and target of the study are therefore directed to enable countries, students and stake-holders, and the world at large to:

i.                    Understand third world countries of underdeveloped Countries

ii.                 Understand the reason why the countries are not developed

iii.               Understand those challenges that have impeded development and how they can affect Nigeria as a third world country despite her richness in petroleum recourses.



The study is limited to third world countries and the challenges of development. Nigeria is used as a case- study because of the fact that she is a third world country and to avoid ambiguity.



The problem of shortage of time in carrying out the research. So, it becomes very difficult for the researcher to research in a wider scope. Therefore, the information contained therein, is limited, to the space of time allowed.

With the present bad economy and financial problem in Nigeria today, funds is not enough for the research work in all the various areas mentioned.

Finally, there also shortage of research centre and workshops and materials. So the research will be based on the much information available within reach. 



Since methodology is a very important component of the research, efforts will be made to apply the relevant methodology that will be suitable for the study. For example, primary and secondary materials will be used. Other relevant methods will be applied to gather necessary materials of the completion of the work.    
















1.        G.O. Unanka:          National Developed Approaches And Prospective. All-

Ages, Owerri, Nigeria 2001 p81.

2.        Alan   Bullock         and _ Oliver Stallyrass     (Eds): The   Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought. Harpe and Row London,          1977 p.634

3.        Opcit Unanka p. 81.

4.        Opcit Alan Qy)lock and Oliver –ST allybrass

5.        A. Waltr Rodney: How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Bogleh O' Ouverture London and Tanzania publishing House Da-re-Salaam, 1976 p.9.

6.        Berger P.C. Pyramids Sacrifice. Anchor Broks New York 1976 p.59



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