The purpose of this research work is to find out the Effect of Transition from Military to Civilian Administration on the Nigerian System (1999 - 2009).

The Nigerian System before the present civilian administration is characterized by poverty in the midst of plenty: by a prodigious endowment in natural and human resources, including petroleum and natural gas, coal, tin, timber, iron ore, Columbite, Limestone, etc. and a pool of highly educated and trained manpower. But alas these potentials have not been transformed into a reality owing large to had leadership/governance.

The economy has led prostrate, by unbelievable depreciations including the worst energy crisis in the history of the country; and virtually comatose economic mismanagement, and above all, civil disturbances, militancy, kidnappings in the oil  producing areas (mostly around Niger-Delta), all of which arc germane and impaired the ability of Nigeria to produce anywhere near its optimum.

Agricultural production has been largely inhibited by problems of high costs and unavailability of inputs, coupled with poor rural infrastructure. Tile aggregate demand in the domestic economy has grossly declined as a result of shrinking purchasing power. The military maintained the country to be one and helped to develop the country why the creation of more states and local governments but, had no answer to her innumerous prevailing political and economic problems.

There is no doubt that the transition under study is expected to turn around an ailing economy, crippled by decades of mismanagement, bad leadership, corruption and political instability. Nigeria's economy, moreover, is burdened by the biggest external debt in Africa, while her heavy dependence on oil reserve ever left her vulnerable.

It is therefore obvious that, the focus on the effect of transition from military to civilian administration has negative effects on the Nigeria economy.

In spite of limitations however, the researcher was able to achieve his visionary. Predetermined and attainable set objectives.




















1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Aims and Objective      

1.3 Significance of the study

1. 4 Scope of the study

1.5 Limitation of the study

1.6 Definition of Terms

References 5



2.1 Historical evolution of Nigeria

3.9.1 The Sanni Abacha Administration (Nov. 18th, 1993- June s", 1998)

3.9.2 The Abdul salami Abubakar Administration (June 1998 - May 29th, t 999)



Textual Analysis and Finding

4.1 Economy



5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation









Political and social changes remain permanent features of the contemporary world. 1brougb human history, power relations, political structures, processes, culture and indeed social processes and norms have had to change either in response to internal or external dynamics, or combination of both. Major economic changes have far reaching political and social consequences in terms of change or the transformation of the status quo. 

However, Nigeria got independence from the British Colonial Government in October 1, 1960, and the country has experienced several administrations.

Hardly ten years after independence, had Nigeria experienced a continuing and deepening crisis of democracy? This was signaled by series of military coup d' etats which began on January 15, 1966. For about forty years since independence the military governed the country.

It has often been conceded by academic historians and public policy scholars that the military maintained the unity and territorial integrity of the country and prevented the attempted secession of the former Eastern region (Biafra Republic) and created states and local governments which disintegrate Nigeria's fragile unity and formed a strong Federal Government at the Centre.

Sequel to the above, the topical issue in this study is on Transition from Military to Civilian Administration: Effects on the Nigerian System (1999-2009).

It tends to investigate the effects as regards the management of the Nigerian economy. Is it true that Nigeria attained economic stability during the military era'? l last elections been free and fair? Has electoral commission been credible enough'? These and many more is what the study tends to investigate with useful suggestions.

From the genesis of this research, the number of transitions before the year 1999 would be researched on. The historical overview of the performance of the Nigeria economy reflects political instability, military intervention, bad governance and which have ravaged the country in the last four decades. The democratization process and return to civil rule, and people's expectation of a more responsive and oriented economic system which basically would deliver the dividends of democracy as expected.

The year 2000 budget was looked upon to meet yawning and aspirations of the people; as good budgetary control is a potent instrument.

Basically, due to good governance, the increasing, level of poverty and poor standard of living would reduce drastically the outcome of dynamic and complex political process and interplay of national interest in good budgetary and foreign policies.

Over the years, Nigerians have not benefited handsomely from these dispensations in tens of public opinion, domestic and foreign policies, fundamental basic and social amenities and general betterment as the military cumulative discovered that siphoning of public funds was the easiest and fastest route to wealth and perhaps the only economic goods left for primitive accumulation.



This research is Ion Transition from military to civilian administration: effects on the Nigerian system (1999-2009). In order to understand the effects vividly, the following problems were investigated.

i.       To find out the effects of transition from military to civilian administration on the Nigerian system (1999-2009).

ii.     To investigate caps of political instability.

iii.  To conduct research on civilian administration.

iv.  To compare the military and civilian governments.



The significance of the study shall be as follows:

It helps us to identify the strength and weakness of the economy under study; it would also enable us to determine the effectiveness of either regime, also helped us to understand vividly past records data, and Help us to create a more appropriate geo­political affiliation.



In considering the cost and time implication to conduct a survey like this. The research is based and concentrated on the transition from military to civilian administration: effects on the Nigerian system, with special reference from 1999- 2009.



The limitation of the study includes insufficient time available for the research of this nature. The time did not warrant an exhaustive study. Also, the element of bias that one encountered when soliciting for responses from questionnaires. Some respondents showed apathy towards given out information about their personal data. These limitations notwithstanding, the study will provide a useful guide for transition programme.



TRANSITION: A period of change from one state or condition to another. e.g. military to civilian rule.

MILITARY: A terminology used for the armed forces, e.g. the Army, Air Force and heavy.

CIVILIAN: Anyone who is not a member of the armed forces or the police. ADMINISTRATION: The directing, managing or governing of a state.

DEMOCRACY: Form of government in which the people govern themselves of chose representatives.

ECONOMY: Organization of money and resources within a nation or community etc. especially, in terms of the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

ELECTION: Process of chosen representatives via votes.

COUP D'ETAT: Sudden change of government by illegal or violent means by the military.

INEC: Independent National Electoral Commission.

FEDECO: Federal Electoral Commission.

NECON: National Electoral Commission of Nigeria.

NEC: National Electoral Commission.

OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

NYSC: National Youth Service Corps.

OFN: Operation Feed the Nation.

NAFPP: National Accelerated Food Produce Programme.





Anifowose, R. and Enemuo F. (1999), Elements of Politics, Sam Iroanusi Publications. Tejuosho Lagos.

Group son P. O. (2009), Military in Politics and The Third Colonization of Africa beyond Destruction and airs, Lawpat Prints, Sango-Ota. Mafeje A. (April, 2002), Democratic Governance and New Democracy in Africa: Agenda for the Future, Journal, and Nairobi, Kenya.

Olayide S. O. (1976), "Economic Survey of Nigeria", Aromolaran Publishing Co. Ltd. lbadan.

Tell Magazine, 1999 - 2007: His Unforgettable Years. Olusegun Obasanjo's Administration.

8amgbose J.A. (1998), "Fundamentals of Nigerian Politics," Muky Press, Lagos.

Abubakar Momoh and Saidi Adejumobi, The Nigerian Military and the Crisis of Democratic Transition: A study in the monopoly of power, (Lagos, CLO, 1999).

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