TABLE OF CONTENTS.
1.1. Background of the study
Statement of problem
Signifcance of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 Malaria and it’s epidemiology
2.1.2 The parasite
18.104.22.168 Life cycle of malaria
2.1.3 Other ways of malaria transmission
2.1.4 Pathogenesis of malaria
2.1.5 Malaria parasitological diagnosis
2.1.7 Control of malaria
2.2 Socio-demographic factors influencing malaria infection among
2.2.4 Health seeking behaviour
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 Study area
Collection of sample
Laboratory analysis of samples
3.7 Ethical consideration
and informed consent
Presentation and Statistical Analysis of Data.
Testing of Hypotheses
infection among students in relation to age
Comparison between Serology Malaria Antibodies P.f results
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies
1.1. Background of the study
is a potentially deadly disease characterized by cyclical bouts of fever with
muscle stiffness, shaking and sweating (WHO, 2000). Macleod (1998) also stated
that malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted to humans through the bites
of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The name “malaria” is derived
from the Italian words Mal (bad) and aria (air). It arose originally because
the citizens of Rome thought that the disease was contracted by breathing the
bad air of the Pontine Marshes (Garnham, 1966).
It is a vector borne infectious disease caused by a eukaryotic protista
of the genus Plasmodium (Akinleye,
2009). Hornby (2007) defined
malaria infection as an infectious disease due to the presence of parasitic
Protozoa of the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P.
ovale or P. vivax) within the red blood cells. The disease is confined to
tropical and subtropical areas. Of this four common species that cause malaria,
the most serious type is P. falciparum malaria;
it is life-threatening (Hay et al.,
is a major health threatening disease, which results in approximately 200 – 300
million clinical cases and 1-3 million deaths each year worldwide (Hay et al., 2004). Malaria transmission is
intense and stable in Nigeria with associated economic losses estimated to be
about 132 billion Naira (Snow et al.,
2005). In Nigeria and rest of endemic Africa, the bulk of malaria episodes are
attributable to P. falciparum with an
estimated 28 million cases and 38 000 deaths in 2011, malaria remains a significant
public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (Yadav et al., 2012). In Nigeria, 52.8% of Nigerian population tested
positive for falciparum based on microscopy examination (Kochar et al., 2009). According to Kolawole et al. (2014), research in university of
Ilorin teaching Hospital (UITH) of patients who have malaria (P. falciparum) infection, 58% of
patients were found to be positive with malaria parasite density ranging from
200 parasite/μl to 800 parasite/μl. Malaria is a febrile illness characterized
by fever and related symptoms; however it is very important to remember that
malaria is not a simple disease of fever, chills and rigors (Kolawole et al., 2014). The number of a typical presentation
of malaria has gradually increased during the past few decades (Akinleye, 2009).
Malaria can present with non-specific symptoms like headache, fatigue, joint
pain, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, myalgia, anaemia followed by fever to
severe complications like jaundice, acute renal failure, anaemia, shock,
convulsions and coma (Hussian et al.,
2012). These symptoms can be acute and chronic depending on the extent of
malaria (falciparum) infection and
also the complication involve (Kochar et
al., 2009). Hence the need for prompt diagnosis and differentiation from
other similar symptomatic infection. This study is an attempt to investigate
the seropostive and seronegative population among Kwara State University,
Statement of problem
infection is a major public health challenge for many countries in the world (especially
developing countries e.g Nigeria) causing tremendous high rates of morbidity
and mortality (Jennison, 2015). The Plasmodium falciparum species
infections are responsible for the majority of the human severe malaria burden worldwide
(Greenwood and Mutabingwa, 2002). This species is found worldwide in tropical
and sub-tropical regions. It is estimated that every year approximately one
million people are killed by species, especially in Nigeria where this
species predominates (Greenwood and Mutabingwa, 2002; Abdel-gadir, 2015).
This parasite causes a lot of harvoc to the body such
as destruction of red blood cells, leading to the clinical signs and symptoms
such as fever, flu-like, chills etc. diarrhea, and anemia and jaundice due to
loss of red blood cells unless treated quickly the disease can kill within 24
hours (Wells et al., 2009). Methods
used in order to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in
areas where malaria is endemic, include prophylactic drugs, mosquito
eradication and the prevention of mosquito bites (Kochar et al., 2009). The continued existence of malaria in an area requires
a combination of high human population density, high mosquito population density
and high rates of transmission from humans to mosquitoes and from mosquitoes to
humans (Akinleye, 2009). If any of these is lowered sufficiently, the parasite
will sooner or later disappear from community (Snow et al., 2005). Many states, communities, institutions, seeing an
increasing number of imported malaria cases owing to extensive travel and
migration and little or no information is available as regarding the
seroprevalence of malaria parasite in Kwara State University, Malete. Hence the
need for the seroprevalence study to estimate the proportion (percentage) of
student who seropositive and those seronegative of malaria infection.
has been established that people of all ages are affected by malaria infection
in sub-saharan Africa, especially Nigeria which bear the heaviest burden of
malaria attack which is either treated at home or in the hospital. Early
recognition and appropriate treatment can go a long way in minimizing the
outcome of the disease. Previously, WHO (2014) has advocated for the management
of malaria infections in the homes, institutions, work place, campuses should
be done before seeking help from any near by health out let. In the recent time
WHO urges endemic countries and malaria partners to adopt diagnostic testing,
treatment and surveillance for malaria (WHO, 2011). Endemic countries and
stakeholders should ensure that every suspected malaria case is tested and that
every confirmed case be treated with a quality-assured anti malarial drug, and
that every malaria case be tracked in a surveillance system. Due to this it
became necessary to verify and compare the relationship between practice,
socio-economic demographic characteristics and malaria infection serology
status. There is paucity of information or no previous data on the seropositive
or seronegative prevalence of malaria
among Kwara State University, Malete students. Hence the significance of this
determine the prevalence of malaria seropositive and seronegative population
among Kwara State University, Malete students.
determine the prevalence of malaria infection among Kwara State University
(Kwasu) student. This was done using rapid diagnostic test strip (RDT) to check
for positivity and negativity among the populace.
access the distribution of malaria according to aged and gender of the
access the sensitivity and specificity of serology.
identify the most common form of Plasmodium
spp (falciparum, vivax, malariae or ovale) among the populace of Kwara
State University (Kwasu) student. This will the done by microscopic examination
of the thin and thick film made with the blood sample collected.
possible associations between the practices, socioeconomic characteristics of
the students and their malaria serological status. This was done using
questionnaire and conclusion was made from the questionnaire.
There is no significance in both gender
and aged of the students
Signifcance of the study
study will provide baseline data that will serve as a heuristic tool for stakeholders
involved in malaria eradication to meet their objectives of the Roll Back
Malaria programme. This will also provide also a guide or a rationale for the
sales of antimalarial drugs and treatment of malaria especially Plasmodium
falciparum from epidemiological surveillance data. Also this study will contribute
relevant data to the Local Government, Federal Ministry of Health and their
developmental agencies on the drug status in the region, It would also go a
long way to remind practitioners on the current status of the drug in the
region in annual workshops or seminars.
Buyers has the right to create
dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when
you experience issue with the file received.
Dispute can only be created when
you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of
contents and content of the file you received.
ProjectShelve.com shall either
provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or
send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and
Conditions are applied.
Buyers are expected to confirm
that the material you are paying for is available on our website
ProjectShelve.com and you have selected the right material, you have also gone
through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE
BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.
In case of payment for a
material not available on ProjectShelve.com, the management of
ProjectShelve.com has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that
is available on our website within 48 hours.
You cannot change topic after
receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.