THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INVOLVEMENT IN EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES AND STUDENTS’ DISCIPLINE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00001127

No of Pages: 99

No of Chapters: 6

File Format: Microsoft Word

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₦4000

TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Background

1.3 Statement of the Problem

1.4 Purpose of the Study 

1.5 Objectives of the Study

1.6 Research Questions

1.7 Significance of the Study

1.8 Limitation and Delimitation of the Study

1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms

1.10 Summary 

 

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Common Offences Committed by High School Pupils

2.3 Types of Extra-Curricular Activities in Schools which Pupils are Involved in Although

2.4 The Relationship between Involvement in Extra-Curricular Activities and Pupil’s Discipline

2.5 Strategies that Help Reduce Indiscipline among High School Pupils

2.6 Summary of Literature

 

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Population

3.4 Sample

3.5 Sampling Procedure

3.6 Data Collection Instruments

3.7 Pilot Study

3.8 Data Collection Procedures

3.9 Data Analysis

3.10 Summary


CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Common Offences Committed by Pupils

4.2.1 Pupil Responses on Offences Committed in Schools

4.2.2 Teacher Responses on Offences Committed by Pupils

4.2.3 The Relationship between Pupils’ Age, Sex and Grade, and Offences Committed

4.3 Types of Extra-Curricular Activities in Schools which Pupils are Involved In

4.3.1 Pupils’ Responses on the Types of Extra-Curricular Activities in Schools

4.3.2 Teacher Responses on Participation and Supervision of Pupils during Extra-Curricular Activities

4.4 The Relationship between Involvement in Extra-Curricular Activities and Pupils’ Discipline

4.4.1 Perceptions of Pupils on the Relationship between Involvement in Extra Curricular Activities and Pupils’ Discipline

4.4.2 Perceptions of Teachers on the Relationship between Involvement in Extra- Curricular Activities and Pupils’ Discipline

4.4.3 Findings from School Disciplinary Records

4.5 Strategies That Help Reduce Indiscipline

4.5.1 Pupil Responses on Strategies That Help Reduce Indisci    e among High School Pupils

4.5.2 Teacher Responses on Strategies That Help Reduce Indiscipline among High School Pupils

4.6 Summary

 

CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Common Offences Committed by Pupils

5.2.1 The Relationship between Pupils’ Age, Sex and Grade, and Offences Committed

5.3 Types of Extra-Curricular Activities in Schools which Pupils were Involved in The

5.4 The Relationship between Involvement in Extra-Curricular Activities and Pupils’ Discipline

5.4.1 Perceptions of Pupils and Teachers on the Relationship between Extra-Curricular Activities and Pupils’ Discipline

5.5 Strategies That Help Reduce Indiscipline among High School Pupils

5.5.1 Strategies being used

5.5.2 Strategies Suggested by Pupils and Teachers

5.6 Summary

 

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Summary

6.2 Conclusion

6.3 Recommendations for Various Stakeholders

6.4 Recommendations for Further Research

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the background of the study on the relationship between extracurricular activities and pupil discipline. The research problem, purpose of the study, research objectives, significance, limitations and operational definitions of the study are also presented in this chapter.

1.2 Background

Acts of indiscipline in high schools continue to be a matter of concern in Zambia. These acts include truancy, drug and alcohol abuse, promiscuity, dodging class, riots, smoking, vandalism, fighting, reporting late for class and insulting, to mention a few. These acts of indiscipline negatively influence the learning and teaching process as they undermine the purpose of education. Indiscipline in high schools is caused by an interaction of different factors. Home factors include a history of drug and alcohol abuse and violence and socioeconomic status of the family. School factors such as unsafe school environment, inappropriate classroom management, teachers humiliating remarks and teacher-pupil relations that are too strict also encourage indiscipline among high school pupils (Baleinakorodawa, 2009; Moseki, 2004; Banja, 2002 and Mwanakatwe, 1974).

In order to curb these acts of indiscipline, various measures such as punishment, scouts and guides youth services, praise for good behaviour, relevant and clear guidelines for teacher behaviour have been suggested by several scholars (Bedding, 2006; Banja, 2002; Phiri, 1983 and Shana, 1973).

Research elsewhere shows that one approach to reducing indiscipline among learners is to involve them in extra-curricular activities (Fredricks and Eccles, 2006; Fujita, 2006; Black, 2002 and Holloway, 2002). These activities prevent pupils from engaging in delinquent acts and provide opportunities for pupils to develop positive relationships with peers and teach     Extra-curricular activities provide opportunities for growth and development at times when pupils are unsupervised and may be tempted to engage in risky behaviours (Simpkins, 2003). Little (2003), cited by Parkay (2006:198), has argued that “students who spend 1 to 4 hours per week in extra-curricular activities are 49 percent less likely to use drugs and 37 percent less likely to become teen parents than their peers who do not participate in such activities.” Thus, extra-curricular activities create a more conducive environment for teachers and pupils to teach and learn, respectively. These activities contribute strongly to increased pride and sense of responsibility in the pupils (Parkay, 2006).

Extra-curricular activities such as athletics, music, indoor and outdoor games, te    pupils how to discipline themselves through drills, practices, or rehearsals. Pupils feel responsible through their participation in these activities as they must perform the tasks assigned to them whether it is to run, sing, act, or organize an event.     articipating and persevering in any of these activities, pupils gain a sense of self-respect, self-esteem, and self-confidence. Extracurricular activities give them pride in their ac      shments and they learn that if an activity is worth doing, it is worth doing well (Simpkins, 2003). Thus, a “school that provides a rich and varied programme of school activities contr butes to strengthening the school spirit and personal development of pupils” (Ministry of Education, 1996:44).

According to the Ministry of Education policy document (1996:43):

Routine activities in the classroom help in promoting  ome of these skills, though the classroom focus tends to be more on the intellectual than emotional domain. The development of other life and social skills will depend largely on the whole ethos of the school and on its programme of extra-curricular activities such as various sporting activities, clubs, societies, school debates, drama and cultural presentations, meetings of cultural and religious groups.

Schools play an important role in promoting a sense of responsibility in pupils through the activities which go on outside the classroom and through school structures that give increasing levels of personal responsibility in their later years.

The process of education can be divided in two parts: curricular activities and extra-curricular activities. Extra-curricular activities are recognized as a source of enhancement and vitalization of the school curriculum through the promotion of pupils’ hobbies and    erests. According to Asmat and Rakhsi (2008: 214), the basic idea of extra-curricular activities in schools is the:

Building up of the pupils’ character and personality as well as training of their mind that may help or facilitate academic achievements…it is believed that unless balancing both the curricular and extra-curricular activities is done, the very purpose of education would be left unrealised.

The function of education is to bring change in pupils’ behaviour and personality in an acceptable form. Therefore modern approaches of education emphasise all round development of the pupil. Hence, extra-curricular activities are no longer looked upon as ‘extras’ but as an integral part of the school programme. 

1.3 Statement of the Problem

Discipline in schools has a positive bearing on educational participation and attainment, while indiscipline negatively influences the learning and teaching process. According to Bedding (2006), Phiri (1983) and Mwanakatwe (1974), strategies such as punishment, suspension, rewards and praise for good behaviour and   unselling have been used to curb indiscipline in high schools in Zambia. However, in western countries extra-curricular activities have been used to reduce the levels of indiscipline in high schools (Parkay, 2006; Simpkins, 2003). There appears to be a dearth of literature in Zambia on the relationship between involvement in extra-curricular activities and pupils’ discipline in high schools. Therefore this study sought to establish the relationship between pupils’ involvement in extra-curricular activities and pupil discipline in high schools in Livingstone.

1.4 Purpose of the Study 

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between extra-curricular activities and pupil discipline in high schools in Livingstone.

1.5 Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study were as follows:

a)     To find out common offences committed by pupils in high schools in Livingstone.

b)     To find out the types of extra-curricular activities pupils participate in in high schools in Livingstone.

c)     To establish the relationship between pupils’ involvement in extra-curricular activities and discipline.

d)     To establish strategies that can be used to reduce ind scipline in high schools in Livingstone.

1.6 Research Questions

This study was guided by the following research questions:

a)      What common offences are committed by pupils in high schools in Livingstone?

b)     What types of extra-curricular activities do pupils participate in in high schools in Livingstone?

c)      What is the relationship between pupils’ involvement in extra-curricular activities and discipline?

d)     What other strategies can be used to reduce indiscipline in high schools in Livingstone?

1.7 Significance of the Study

The study will provide information on the role of extra-curricular activities in dealing with acts of indiscipline in high schools in Zambia. This study will be useful to educational administrators and teachers as well as parents as it will suggest other strategies that can be used to reduce indiscipline among pupils in schools.      study will also contribute to the existing body of knowledge and literature on ways of reducing indiscipline in schools.

1.8 Limitation and Delimitation of the Study

The researcher used non-proportional stratified random sampling. Proportional stratified sampling could not be used as there was insufficient time to systematically employ the proportional sampling procedure. Gall et. al. (2007) states that when using non-proportional stratified random sampling, generalizations cannot be made from the total sample. This is because it does not accurately represent proportional subgroup composition to that of the population.

Time limited the number of respondents at each site in order to meet the set deadline. Hence the study was conducted in only four high schools in Livingstone and drew a total sample of only 208 respondents, thus findings of this study may not be generalized to all schools countrywide.

1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms

Adolescence refers to a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood characterized by physical and psychological development usually between 13 and 19 years.

At-Risk Pupils refer to pupils that are likely to get involved in alcohol a d drug abuse or in any acts of indiscipline.

Discipline refers to training, especially of the mind and character, to produce self-control habits of obedience, the results of which sets rules f r conduct and methods by which training may be given.

Extra-curricular activities refer to aspects of the school curriculum focusing on indoor and out door activities of educational nature offered outside the school time table, such as debating, drama and various sporting activities.

Indiscipline refers to misbehaviour or deviance or any form of behaviour that displays disobedience to authority and failure to follow set rules of conduct.

1.10 Summary 

This chapter has provided the background of the study, problem and purpose of the study, significance, limitation and delimitation and operational definitions used in the study. These have established the basis of the study. The following chapter reviews the literature of the study.

 

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