EFFECTS OF AEROBICS EXERCISE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR VARIABLES OF ADULTS

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ABSTRACT

This study explored the effects of aerobic exercise on cardiovascular variables of adult s in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos state. The study was guided by research objectives and hypotheses which include the effect of aerobic exercise on the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rates of adults. Literature review covered relevant texts and documents on the research topic. The researcher adopted the experimental research design. A sample of 40 participants were taken from Kosofe area of Lagos state. The researcher used experiments to derive data for the study. Descriptive statistics of percentage were used to analyse personal data, while the inferential statistics of t-test were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that 8-week aerobic exercise program has a significant effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but not on heart rate. Based on the findings from the study the following conclusions were drawn that inactivity is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. However, exercise helps improve heart health, and can even reverse some heart disease risk factors and all muscles, the heart becomes stronger as a result of exercise, so it can pump more blood through the body with every beat and continue working at maximum level, if needed, with less strain. The resting heart rate of those who exercise is also slower, because less effort is needed to pump blood. Recommendations were made on the basis of the findings of this study which include the following: Individuals should endeavour to exercise regularly, for the benefit of their heart and circulatory system in general. Regular aerobic exercise decreases one’s chances of developing or dying from cardiovascular diseases and Adults should be encouraged to engage in Aerobic Exercise training to improve some of their fitness components.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                             Pages

Certification                                                               ii

Dedication                                                                iii

Acknowledgement                                                  iv

Table of Content                                                     v

Abstract                                                                vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                1

Statement of the Problem                                            5

Purpose of the Study                                         6

Research Questions                        6

Research Hypotheses                                6

Limitations of the Study                                     7

Delimitations of the study                                      7

Definitions of terms                                                        7


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Concepts of Aerobics                                                  9

Concepts of Exercise                                                          10

Concepts of Aerobics Exercise                                         14

Cardiovascular Variables                                           15

Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure                        21

The effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Variables of Adults.     24

The Benefits of Aerobic Exercise in Adults              26

Cardiovascular and respiratory Response to Physical Exercise     33

Impact of Physical Exercise on the Cardiovascular System in Elderly    35

 

CHAPTER THREE:   RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design                                                     37

Population of the study                                     37

Sample and Sampling Technique             37

Research Instrument                                          37

Validity of the Instrument                                37

Reliability of the Instrument                            37

Method of Data Collection                                      37

Method of Data Analysis                              38

 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Presentation of Demographic Data                         40

Analysis of Data and Testing of Hypotheses                   41

Discussion of Findings                                       43

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary                                                            45

Conclusion                                                  46

Recommendation                                            47

Suggestions for further studies                         48

References                                                   49

 


 




CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION


Background of the study

Exercise has long been recommended by health educators, physiologists and trainers for its numerous benefits to humans. Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness (Pare, 2013).  Glanville (2013) sees exercise as any movement that works the body at a greater intensity than one’s usual level of daily activity. Glanville also noted that exercise raises one’s heart rate and works the muscles and is most commonly undertaken to achieve the aim of physical fitness. In the words of (Dilmen, 2006), exercise is any form of physical activity that helps to promote overall health. Most movement of the body is considered beneficial, as long as it is done in moderation and at the skill level of the person.

Exercise is performed for various reasons, including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and merely enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and obesity ( Arnheim, 2005 ). It may also help prevent depression, help to promote or maintain positive self-esteem, improve mental health generally, and can augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which has been found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem (Ikulayo, 2006).

Age is associated with increases in body weight, body fat, abdominal fat and deterioration of the lipid profile (Martins, 2010). Studies clearly show that exercise helps the heart, both by improving exercise capacity and reducing the risk of heart disease and premature death.

 In addition, studies report that even people with heart disease can gain important benefits from exercising; though they need medical clearance and special precautions. Studies continue to show that it is never too late to start exercising. Elderly adults who exercise twice a week can significantly increase their body strength, flexibility, balance, and agility. Studies show that even small improvements in physical fitness and activity can prolong life (Andre, 2008).

Accordingly, the weakening of the cardiovascular system associated with aging could be countered by increasing levels of physical activity and functional fitness. Regular aerobic exercise has been suggested to protect the cardiovascular variables by increasing cardiac activity. Aerobic training is a highly recommended form of exercise for adults, the general population, and for individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease. There are many physical and physiological adaptations that occur as a result of consistent aerobic training. Those changes include increased muscle strength, power, endurance and size, increased bone density and strength, reduced body fat, increased muscle -to-fat ratio, and elevated metabolism (Fonda, 2012).  Following proper resistance training principles may also contribute to a lowered heart rate/blood pressure after exercise, improved balance and stability and increased strength of connective tissue, and enhanced performance of everyday tasks. Aerobics training has a positive effect on the human musculature, connective tissue, bone formation, and metabolism. One of the most direct cardiovascular adaptations to aerobics training is the ability to tolerate higher blood pressure responses during exercise (cooper, 1968).

 Aerobics is a vigorous exercises designed to increase cardiovascular efficiency. A system of sustained exercises designed to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood and to strengthen the heart and lungs. Aerobic exercise is a consistent moderate intensity work that uses up oxygen in the working muscles. Aerobics is a type of exercise that overloads the heart at rest. Current evidence clearly indicates that participation in a regular exercise program is an effective way to reduce and/or prevent a number of the functional declines associated with aging. Older adults have the ability to adapt and respond to both endurance and strength training. Inactivity is one of the major risk factors for heart diseases (Astrand, 1953).

However, exercise helps improve heart health and can even reverse some heart disease risk factors. Like all muscles, the heart becomes stronger as a result of exercise, so it can pump more blood through the body with every beat and continue working at maximum level, if needed, with less strain. The resting heart rate of adults who exercise is also slower because less effort is needed to pump blood. The American Heart Association recommends that adults or individuals perform moderate exercise for at least 150minutes per week or 75minutes per week of vigorous exercise. During aerobic exercise the demand for oxygen increase at the working muscle an optimum level of haemoglobin I required to perform at the highest level with high intensity (Nielsen &weber, 2007).

During aerobic training several cardiovascular changes occur including increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), increased heart rate (HR), increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and rate pressure product (RPP)(ACSM ,2002). Changes in these hemodynamic variables can be indicative of improvement in fitness, or the presence of disease. Although these changes are seen in both resistance training and aerobic training, caution must be taken. Increases in blood pressure and rate pressure product may prove to be dangerous within older individuals, individuals with heart disease, or individuals with little or no training. However, aerobics training can be beneficial to all of these individuals when prescribed and supervised efficiently (Edward 2007).

World health organization guidelines for the management of hypertension, recommended adherence to a program of aerobic exercise for the purpose of lowering resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults. (James, 1998).


Statement of the problem

The cardiovascular diseases are health problems faced by countries around world. Researches shows that the increased in cardiovascular diseases is associated with different variables such as: body composition, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor eating habits, historic family and physical inactivity. All these variables, over the years, to a greater or lesser extent, have contributed to an increase incidence of cardiovascular disease in adults (Mosca, 2004; Bielemann et al., 2009; National Institute on Aging, 2011; Estruch et al., 2013).

In this part of the world, there is high mortality rate; high health cost; lack or no time for physical activities. Cardiovascular diseases such as, high blood pressure are prevalent among adults and KOSOFE Local Government Area is not left out. Studies however show that performing aerobic exercise represents an antihypertensive therapy effective in minimizing cardiovascular risk factors (Maiorana et al., 2003; Goldsmith et al., 2000). There is a consideration that participation in aerobic exercise would actually reduce, the rate of heart related diseases thereby reducing the mortality rate and further enhancing a healthy economy. Although, another challenge in Nigeria may be to encourage Nigerians to take active participation in aerobic exercise. This study however is designed to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on cardiovascular variables of adults in KOSOFE Local Government Area of Lagos State.  The result is to further encourage Nigerian adults take part in aerobic exercise.


Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the effects of aerobic exercise program on the cardiovascular variables of adults in Kosofe local government area of Lagos state.


Research Questions

(1)      Will aerobic exercise have effect on the systolic blood pressure of adult after eight week of aerobic exercise training programme?

(2)       Will aerobic exercise have effect on the diastolic blood pressure of adult after eight week of aerobic exercise training programme?

(3)       Will aerobic exercise have effect on heart rate of adult after the eight weeks of aerobic exercise?


Research Hypotheses

(1)        Aerobic exercise will not have significant effect on the systolic blood pressure of adult after the eight weeks of aerobic exercise training programme.

(2)       Aerobic exercise will not significant effect on the diastolic blood pressure of adult after the eight weeks of aerobic exercise training programme.

(3)       Aerobic exercise will not have effect on the heart rate of adult after the eight weeks of aerobic training programme.


Limitations of the study

While it is envisaged, that the researcher would encounter certain challenges in administering tests on adults in Kosofe Local Government Area. Furthermore, it may be difficult to carry out test on some participants. Also, some of the equipment to carry out these tests might not be readily available to the researcher.


Delimitations of the study

1.       This study is delimited to the adults of Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State. Also,

2.      The effect of aerobic exercises will be carried out (on cardiovascular variables).

3.      You can delimit your tool and

4.      Instrument 


Definitions of terms

Aerobics: this is a vigorous exercises designed to increase cardiovascular efficiency requiring the presence of oxygen.

Exercise: activity requiring physical effort, carried out to sustain or improve health and fitness.

Cardiovascular: this is relating to the heart and blood vessels.

Aerobic exercise: this is a constant moderate intensity work that uses up oxygen at a rate in which the cardiovascular system can replenish oxygen in the working muscles.

Adults: a matured or grown up individual, who has reach the age of adulthood.

Sedentary: this is characterized by much sitting and little physical activities.

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