The issue of study-duration extension in education is
like a hole in a tooth; boldly challenging the perfection of education and
constantly questioning its efficiency. This study explores this distasteful
phenomenon, highlighting its causative factors, antecedence and implications.
It is delimited to the Department of
Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos.
The sample population were 40 extra-year students from the above-mentioned
Department. The Chi-square statistical tool was employed in data analysis. The
following recommendations were made: Students who represent the University in
sporting competitions, their movements
should be made known to the lecturers and other teaching personnel in
the institution. Arrangements should also be made to set up make-up test,
assignments and examinations for them, which they may miss while representing
the institution. Cohort advisers need to be motivated and encouraged to live up
to their expectations. Checks and balances should be made on their activities
by the appropriate personnel, while considering feedbacks from advisees. There
is need to continually guide students against the effects of negative peer
pressure, so that it may not affect their academic goals and achievements.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Purpose of
the Study 4
Research Hypotheses 5
of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 6
Limitation of the Study 6
Definition of Terms 7
Overview of Human Kinetics and Health Education Course 10
Factors Influencing Extension of Study Duration among 12
Human Kinetics and Health Education students.
2.3 Learning Environment/ School Location, Infrastructural
Teacher Qualification, Methodology, Training and
Personality/ Attitude, Methodology and Students Performance in 29
Human Kinetics and Health Education
2.6. Textbooks/Curriculum and Students’
Performance in Human Kinetics and 32
Practical Physical Activity Practice by Students of Human 34
Kinetics and Health Education
2.8 Problems of Extra Years are Due to the
Following Factors as Experienced 35
By Undergraduates of HKE.
2.9 School Related Factors Leading to Extension of Study
Duration among 38
Human Kinetics and Health
Education Participation and Academic 41
Performance of Students
2.11. Participation in Human Kinetics and Health
Education Programmes 45
2.12. Educational Outcomes of Human Kinetics and
Health Education 48
3.1 Research Design 50
3.2 Population of the Study 50
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 51
3.4 Research Instrument 51
of Instrument 51
3.6 Reliability of Instrument 52
3.7 Administration of instrument 52
3.8 Scoring of
Data analysis 52
ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Analysis of Bio-Data 53
of Data Collected From Respondents 53
of Questionnaire 58
4.5 Discussion 79
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 83
5.2 Conclusion 83
5.3 Recommendations 84
Background to the Study
with the directives of the National University Commission’s Minimum Academic
Standards for Nigerian Universities (1989), reinforced by the Accreditation
Panel report of 1999, two separate degree programmes were proposed for the
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education. These are:B.Sc (Education)
in Human Kinetics and B.Sc. (Education) in Health Education.
The programmes are to carry out both academic and service
functions. The academic functions of the Human Kinetics option include;
professional preparation of teachers of Human Kinetics and personnel for sports
and recreation. Its service function comprises the provision for students,
instruction for credit, in leisure-time movement activity, and professional
services in the development in sports and recreation in the University.
The academic programme in Health Education, Health
Science Specialists, teachers and professional personnel for schools and
community Health Education. Its services roles are geared towards provision of
leadership through concurrent field-works in the overall development of
physical, social and environmental healthy living of the University Community
and its environs.
The issue of academic performance of students in Nigeria
has been of much concern to all and
sundry. The rate of extra year is becoming a
common phenomenon among Nigerian undergraduates, mostly in the faculty of
education, department of Human Kinetics and Health
Education. This is one thing that continues to attract
the attention of stakeholders especially the academia, parents, students,
government and other stakeholders in education.
The situation is so serious that educators are calling
for a total overhauling of the tertiary education system. The Nigeria
University Commission (NUC) believes
that the problem can only be tackled with the improvement of the quality of the
academic staff thus insisting that Ph.D would be the minimum teaching
qualification in all Nigerian universities by 2009.
However, many academics see the problem of students having extra year apart from the normal duration of study in school as a manifestation of the
grave negligence which the system has suffered over two decades, the poor
quality of the intakes from the secondary education levels and the dearth of
modern teaching-learning and research facilities in the faculty of education as
a whole (Abiodun&Owoyele, 2011).
The question that arises is how do students themselves
see the phenomenon of having extra year (s) which resulted from academic
failure and how do they feel when it dawn on them that they have failed one or
more courses which made them to have
extra year (s)? Students are known to
attribute extra year (s) and academic failure to several factors. It is a
common phenomenon to hear students say that ‘my lecturer gave me 32% or 24%’
instead of saying ‘I failed the course’ suggesting that the lecturer was just
distributing scores and he/she was unfair in his/her distribution. Some
students tend to attribute failure to external causes but success to
themselves. It is also common to associate failure to other causes including
defective teaching (Komolafe&Yara, 2010), poor preparation, difficult
questions, emotional problems, lack of necessary facilities and epileptic power
supply making studying very difficult. Since students are at the receiving end
of all educational plans and programmes, a consideration of their perceived
causes and affective reactions to their success or failure is necessary
especially when stakeholders are thinking of overhauling the system due to poor
academic achievement of students in universities.
are various factors that may potentially affect students’ psychology which
posed threats to students academic performance. They can be grouped into four
broad categories: individual level factors including the student’s personal
factors like socio-economics status, extension of study duration, peer
pressure, physical health status and social and emotional wellbeing, career level factors and the physical and mental health of
careers family and household environment
factors school environment factors. Analysis of factors associated with
students’ academic performance is presented from each of these perspectives.
The direct relationship between student, career, family and household and
school environment factors and the extent to which each is associated with
academic performance in students. In the course of writing this
study, the researcher intend to investigates the spreading of extra year
among Human Kinetics and Health
of the Problem
The rate of extra year student is often a matter of
grave concern to stakeholders in education as it indicates wastageof the
enormous resources expended in the system and poses some threats to the future
educationaldevelopment of students. How do students who failed to graduate on time
perceive and react to failure?It is believed that a thorough understanding of
students’ perception and reaction to extra
failure wouldindicate the type and nature of academic counselling such
students would need.
The main problems of study is
based on the fast decaying school facilities and like lack of
infrastructures like buildings, chairs, tables,
and so on. It has
been observed that there is only display of such materials by various schools
by the officials of the Ministry of Education. The effect of this neglect
mismanagement, poor maintenance and inadequate supply of these instructional
materials has created the following problems:
tend to learn slowly in class.
is learnt is not easily recalled.
academic performance of students in internal and external examinations.
Inability of student to practicalize what is learnt
especially things having to do with technical or vocational skills
Others found out that the attitude of some students to the course of study is reflected in their
poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavory comments about
student’s performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and
learning likes affect students’ academic performance in Human Kinetics and
Health Education. The question therefore is what is the cause of this fallen
standard and poor academic performance of students? Is the fault entirely that
of teachers or students or both of them? Is it that students of today are
non-achievers because they have low intelligent quotient and a good neutral
mechanism to be able to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively
with academic tasks? Or is it because teachers are no longer putting in much
commitment as before? Or is it in teachers’ method of teaching and interaction
with pupils? Or is the poor performance of students caused by parents’ neglect,
separation and poverty? The present study therefore sought to find out the rampancy of extra year among Human Kinetics and Health Education students
of tertiary institution like the University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigates the
spreading of extra year among Human
Kinetics and Health Education students.
Others specific study includes:
know whether socio economics status will
lead to extension of study duration
among Human Kinetics and Health
To determine whether participation in sports competitions
will result in extension of study
duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education
know whether the role of Cohort
Adviser will lead to extension of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students.
know whether peer pressure will lead to extension of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered:
Will socio economic status lead to extension
of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students?
Will participation in
sports competitions result in extension
of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students?
the role of Cohort Adviser lead to extension of
study duration among Human
Kinetics and Health Education students?
Will peer pressure lead to extension of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students?
The following hypotheses will be tested:
1. Socio economic status will not lead to
extension of study duration among Human Kinetics and Health Education students.
2. Participation in sports competitions
will not result in extension of study duration
among Human Kinetics + will not lead to extension of study duration among Human
Kinetics and Health Education students.
3. Role of Cohort
Adviser will not lead to extension of study duration among Human Kinetics and
Peer pressure will not lead to extension of study
duration among Human Kinetics and Health
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant because the need to
understand the various aspects of the problem of extension of study duration and under achievement remains very vital in the
effort to rejuvenate the Human Kinetics and Health Education and the entire faculties in the tertiary
institutions in general.
Specifically, the findings of this study would be very
useful to school psychologists, university administrators, counsellors and
educators who are concerned about the rising rate of extension of study duration due to academic
failure among Nigerian undergraduates. It is necessary to understand how
students of Human Kinetics and Health Education perceive and react to academic
failure before one can formulate appropriate policies and design relevant
remedial counselling services which could help in remediating the problem of academic failure among students.
The study will help various school administrators to understand the
benefit of encouraging students’ attitudes towards their career choice of study.
This study will be of
great benefits to the parents as this
will enable parents to know how
to teach their children to cultivate good attitudes in their studies.
of the Study
research work is limited to the students who have experienced and still
experiencing extension of study duration within the department of Human
Kinetics and Health Education, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The following limitations were encountered when this
study was carried out
Little knowledge of the students on the subject matter
Reluctance of respondents to
Definition of Terms
Prevalence: It means issues of poor academic that keep reoccurring among the students.
Extra-year Student: A Human Kinetics
and Health Education student who could not fulfill his course requirements
during the stipulated duration of 3/4 years.
Cohort Adviser: A lecturer in charge of a particular level/set
(100,200,300 or 400) of Human Kinetics and Health Education students whose duty
is to provide guidance and counseling for students.
Socio-Economic situation: Financial Economic capability.
Sports Competitions: Inter-scholastic sports festivals which takes place at
regular intervals between University Students: such as Departmental, Faculty,
Inter-hall, Nigeria University Games (NUGA), West Africa University Games
Human Kinetics and Health Education (HKE):
Human Kinetics is the component that
deals with enlightenment in the areas of physical education, exercise, sports
and dance while Health Education on the other hand aims fundamentally to
promote the sustenance of good health by exploring areas of study such as
epidemiology, community health, industrial health, environmental health etc.
Academic Performance - This is the level of academic
education attainable by an individual at a particular point in time as depicted
by the subjects’ performance.
Teaching – This is a process of imparting
knowledge or the transfer of knowledge from somebody who knows (the teacher) to
an individual who does not know (the students).
This refers to an organization of motivational perceptional and cognitive
process with respect to some aspects of the individual’s world. The attitude
one has on something determines to a great extent, how he/she would be involved
in that thing. Attitude affects all we do in human life.
Education- it is the aggregate of all the
processes by means of which a person develops abilities, skills and other
forces of behavior of positive (and sometimes of negative) value in the society
in which he lives.