The purpose of this study
is to investigate the predisposing factors towards the organisation of Youths
Sports Programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State. A total of
Two hundred (200) samples of the population from selected Private Secondary
Schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State using stratified
random sampling techniques. Data
was collected with the use of structured self-developed questionnaire.
Data collected were
analysed using the frequency counts and simple percentage for demographic data
while the inferential statistics of Chi-square (X²) were used to test the four
(4) hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from reveal that,
funds, adequate facilities and equipments, corporate sponsorship and competent
coaches were predisposing factor towards the organization of youths sports
programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State. Based on this,
conclusions and recommendations were made.
Title page i
Table of contents vi
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the Study 4
Research Questions 4
Research Hypotheses 5
Significance of the Study 5
Delimitation of the Study 6
Limitations of the Study 6
Operational Definitions of Terms 7
TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
History of Sports 10
Historical Background Sports Development
in Nigeria 11
Concept of Sport 14
Functions of sports 16
The Origin and Emergence of Organized
Competitive Sport 17
Factors towards the Organisation of Youths
Sports Programme 20-28
Lack of Funds 20
Lack of Adequate Facilities and Equipments 22
Lack of Corporate Sponsorship 25
Lack of Competent Coaches 28
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 31
Population of the Study 31
Sample and Sampling Procedure 31
Research Instrument 31
Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument 32
Procedure for Data Collection 32
Procedure of Data Analysis 32
FOUR: PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Presentation of Results 33
Data Analysis 33
Discussion of Findings 36
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Appendix I: Sample questionnaire 49
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Sport participation is as old as man itself. In the
Stone Age era, man had to strive hard for food, hunt animals, farm and look for
shelter. During his adventure for daily bread, he might likely be chased by
animals (wild), thereby forcing him to run for his dear life. Hence, the early
man participation in sporting activities was an instrument for survival. United
Nations Inter-Agency Task Force for Development and Peace defined Sports “as
the activity that contributes to physical fitness, mental well-being and social
interactions such as play, recreation, organised or competitive Sport and
indigenous sports and games”. Adedeji (2007) described sports as a sub-division
of games which have common characteristics like physical performance, standard
set of rules to be followed by all concerned form of opposition.
emergence of youth sport organizations during the past half century has
resulted in a new aspect of socialization of children and the nature of their
leisure (Coakley 2006). Organized youth sport in particular is highly valued by
many children as a popular extracurricular activity, with both ‘fun and
participatory’ and/or ‘competitive and winning’ aspects.
parents also value organized youth s]port and purposively seek out programs for
their child’s involvement, parents perceive that organized sport programs may
help enhance their child’s physical and social growth and development (Iwasaki,
2005; Coakley, 2006). Organized youth sport is also believed to facilitate
important cultural lessons in the areas of character building, teamwork,
responsibility, cooperation and competition; all attributes that are valued
within a capitalist society (Kinney and Hofferth, 2003).
importance of sports to a country cannot be ignored especially among the youth
which serves as prime movers in diverse national issues. Sports develop the
youths physically, socially, mentally and emotionally. Butcher (2008) opined
that sporting activities provides situations that are physically wholesome,
mentally stimulating and society sound. When youths sports are organized,
participation in such sports is seen as a means of correction illness, a medium
for cultural change and a source of revenue generation for the nation (Odejide,
youth sport has been a topic of considerable research in recent years,
particularly in demonstrating the benefits of participation. Research has
examined the psychological, moral and physical importance of the sport
experiences as it relates to the child’s growth, development, and performance.
Of significant note are the physical benefits of sport in combating childhood
obesity and countering negative risk behaviors such as alcohol and drug use
As Coakley and
Donnelly (2009) point out: “organized sports is often a family affair. From a routine activities
perspective, participation in sports programs reduces boredom and the amount of
time youth spend in idle, unsupervised social contexts. In other words,
compared with their uninvolved peers, sports participants simply have less
unsupervised leisure time in which to engage in risky activities – including
violence (Bailey, 2005).
stated that since sports provide experience that helps achieve purposeful
living, it should thus, form an integral part of National Education Programme.
The idea is that if organized youths sports programs operate in high-risk
communities where vandalism, property crime, drug dealing and gang activity
persist, the physical presence of participants (including adult supervisors and
athletes) will discourage youth from offending in that area (Nichols and Crow,
2004). Sports might have on the psychological development of young people. Some
theorists, for example, claim that since delinquent youth often seek excitement
and stimulation, sports can offer an alternative to anti-social behavior.
Family exerts a powerful influence is shaping activity
interest and individual dreams of youths (children) to participate in sports.
Yusuf (2203) and Urom (2002) found out that parents of the Olympic athletes
tend to engage in similar activities.
Organized youths sports equip individuals with sports skills
which he or she use during leisure time, engage in as a profession or a health
enhancing measure; many youths are made through sports participation. Berger
and Littlefield (2005) pointed out that participation in sports may encourage
the development of favourable personality traits that may enhance popularity.
It is therefore the concern of the researcher is to investigate the
predisposing factors towards the organization of youth sports programme in
Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
schools in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state do organize
inter-school sports competition and inter-house sports Among the Universities.
Sport is organized by the Nigerian Universities’ Games Association, among the
Colleges of Education, sport is co-ordinated by the Nigerian Colleges of
Education Games Association (NICEGA), and the Nigerian Polytechnic Games
Association (NIPOGA) organizes sports competitions among students from
different polytechnics. All these are organized in order to encourage youth’s
performance and also to promote oneness.
In addition to the
growing popularity, youths sports is also significant because parents are now
increasingly involved in and concerned about the participation of their
children in organized youths sports.
In spite of the above,
the organization of youths sports programme has still been unproductive due to
some factors. This study is therefore designed to determine the predisposing
factors towards the organization of youths sports programmed.
PURPOSE OF STUDY:
The purpose of this
study is to investigate the predisposing factors towards the organization of
youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
Below are the
research questions that will be explored in this study’
1. Will lack of fund
be a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in
Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state?
2. Will lack of
adequate facilities and equipments be a predisposing factor towards the
organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of
3. Will lack of
corporate sponsorship be a predisposing factor towards the organization of
youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state?
4. Will lack of
competent coaches in sports club be a predisposing factor towards the
organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of
1. Lack of fund will
not be significantly a predisposing factor towards the organization of youth
sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos state.
2. Lack of adequate
facilities and equipments will not be will not be significantly a predisposing
factor towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local
Government Area of Lagos state.
3. Lack of corporate
sponsorship will not be will not be significantly a predisposing factor towards
the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government Area of
4. Lack of competent
coaches in youth’s sports club will not be significantly a predisposing factor
towards the organization of youth sports programme in Surulere Local Government
Area of Lagos state.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:
It is widely
believed that participation of youths in sports offers them opportunities to
compete favourably in a cordial atmosphere of healthy, mutual and competitive
understanding. From recent trends of events, sports have proved that it has
something to offer the society. It has been accepted as a means of fostering
the development of physical, mental, emotional and social efficiency as well as
This study will
provide the benefits of youth sports in private schools in Surulere Local
Government Area of Lagos state and also reveal the predisposing factors towards
the organization of youths sports in private schools in Surulere Local
Government Area of Lagos state.
This study is
expected to point out to the factors that stand as obstacles to making the
organization of youth sports programme possible and successful. It will also
recommend some ways to mitigate or deal with those obstacles, thereby leading
to a positive result that will be beneficial to the youths, the government and
the society at large.
This study to the
society cannot be over emphasized. When youths engage in organized sports, it
helps a great deal in relieving the society of social misconducts. Organized
youths sports is also believed to facilitate important cultural lessons in
areas of character-building, team work, responsibility, co-operation and
competition; all attributes that are valued within a capitalist society
To the Government
at the local, state and national levels, youths sports are of great benefits.
The youth’s participation in sports and sporting events has taken the nation’s
name to greater heights. Nigeria has been recognized through sports and
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY:
This study will be
delimited to the following;
private secondary schools in Surulere Local Government Area in Lagos state.
(3) Private Secondary Schools within Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos
state were selected using purposive sampling techniques, fifty (50) students
from each school making a total of two hundred (200) respondents from the
sampled local government using Stratified Random Sampling Techniques.
use of well structured questionnaire form as an instrument for data collection.
total of two hundred (200) copies of questionnaires were administered to the
respondents by the researcher and his assistants. The entire administered
questionnaires were retrieved the same day to avoid loss.
OF THE STUDY:
limitations are perceived in the course of this study;
attitudes of some students towards research work, the researcher would
encourage the respondents to be optimistic about filling the questionnaire.
of some students to fill some parts of the questionnaires or supply of false
information. Researcher guarantees respondents that all information collected
will be used for research purpose.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
the time of life between childhood and adulthood (maturity).
This involves all form of competitive activity through casual or organized
participation aim to use, maintain or improve ability and provide entertainment
To organize means to put together into an orderly, functional and structured
A written or printed list of events, performers, etc in an event.
A latin word meaning “who or which acts”.
These are permanent and usually more durable sports structure such as
gymnasium, swimming pool, tenis court, etc.
These are moveable sports materials such as racket, ball hockey sticks, etc.