1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY:
1.3 AIMS OF THE
1.4 STATEMENT OF
1.5 LIMITATION OF
OF THE STUDY
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 MATERIALS (SEE APPENDIX)
3.2.2 SOURCE OF
3.2.3 PREPARATION OF
DETERMINATION OF pH
3.2.6 BACTERI COUNT,
GRAM STAINING AND MICROSCOPIC:-
3.2.7 BIOCHEMICAL TEST FOR IDENTIFICATION OF
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
Poultry are collection of birds raised
commercially or domestically for meat, egg and feathers. Chickens, ducks turkeys and geese are of
primary importance while guinea fowl and squabs (pigeons) are chiefly of local
interest. These birds are source of income
and food to the rarer. In the past only
hens that could no longer produce eggs were killed and sold for meat but by the
mid-20th century, meat production had outstripped egg. Production as
a specialized industry (Encycloparredia Britaimca, 1988). Heavy breed poultry animals are used for meat
white light bread chickens are primarily for the production of eggs (Mc Graw
Hill encydopaedia 1992). The meat and
eggs produced from poultry are important sources of dietary portion. In Africa,
animal protein foods from all sources contribute between 7g and 15g daily per
person to the total food intake (Oyenyga, 1974). Today, Poultry production in the country is
increasing at a tremendous rate and yet cannot meet the demand because of
population growth and the awareness created by the campaigns for the need of
animal protein in the diet.
The growth and well-being of organisms
are to a large extent dependent on the mount and type of food they receive and
the manner or rate at which they receive it.
The food should contain nutrients such
as water, carbohydrates, fats, protein, minerals, vitamins and added growth
factors improper balance. Each of these
nutrients has a major role to play concerning growth, maintenance and
productivity of the poultry. According to
Leonard 91981), nutritional deficiency or inbalance. These diseases may include rickets, perosis,
and nutritional roup, curly the paralysis
etc. These diseases could result due to
deficiency in vitamins D, Manganese, vitamin A, vitamin E and riboflavin. Improper sanitation and inadequate management
play major roles in disease. Outbreak
and productivity of the desired products.
In developing countries like Nigeria, the
cost of feeding, especially the monogastries continues to escalate primarily in
response the soaring cost of the conventional feed ingredients. This phenomenon is precipitated by under
production and importation of some food stuff coupled with the competition
between man and farm animal for energy
and protein concentrates.
The use of agro-industrial by-products
towards reducing food cost has been widely recognized (EshieH and Ademosun,
1981; Atteh and Oloagbenla, 1993). Chicken and turkeys satisfy their energy
needs provided the ration a allows them to do so (Church, 1988). The are of course exceptional to this rule
particularly where heavy breed layers are concerned, when birds have a tendency
to over-eat. Where this is a problem, it
is general practice to subject the birds to some degree of food restriction
during the growing and production
periods. The major ingredients that are integral parts of poultry rations at
the present time in the USA are corn, as the primary source of energy and
soybean meal as the major protein supplement (Roland et al 1972),
while in Nigeria, Udedibie et al (1988) and Nwokon (1993) produced poultry
offal meal (P.O.M) and chicken offal meal (COM) respectively from waste product
similar to poultry visceral Offal (PVO) according to these authors POM has been
used to replace ground nut cake in layer and broiler finisher diets and COM has
been used along with fish meat and blood
meat as sources of methodize and lysine in the starter diets of lockerels. These major ingredients, usually available in
plentiful supply, allow rapid growth or high egg production with very efficient
conversion. However, corn-soy rations
are deficient in some nutrients for chickens and these nutrients are normally
supplied by other poultry meal.
There are different types of feeds given to poultry brids
depending on the purpose. These
different types of feeds given to poultry birds depending on the purpose. These different types are the breeders’
starters, growers’ and layer’ feeds. The
percentage of each ingredient in the feed varies depending on the type of
feed. The ingredient include ground
yellow corn, ground oats or barley, Alfata meat, Fish meal, Oystershell,
managised salt, vitamin A, vitamin D, and coccidiostat (which is given in form
and at the level recommended by the manufacturer). The different percentage of
each ingredient varies depending on the kind of feed for example, ground yellow
corn in starter and grower feed is 25% and 22% in breeder and layer feeds.
There could be the same percentage of a particular ingredient in different
feeds as in the case of a alfafa meal which constitutes 10% inall the feed
types. Some ingredients could be absent
in a particular feed but present in the others as in the case of riboflavin
supplement which is absent in starter feed and present at the levels of 2 and
5% in rower, layer and breeder feeds respectively.
To maintain healthy birds, the feeds
are kept fresh as much as possible at all times. The amount of feed in feeders are limited to
the extent necessary to avoid wastage.
It is a good practice to fill hanging feeders – only three quarter full,
and trough feeders only two third full (Graham, 1977). Checking the weight of
the birds and its feed consumption is very necessary. A drop in feed intake usually is the first
indication of trouble, a disease outbreak, molt, stress or poor management
(Graham, 1977). Most poultry feed are
prepared in dehydrated forms and because of this, there is the need to store
them properly to avoid moisture uptake
and damage by heat. In this way,. They
can remain safe for a considerable period of time without loosing their
safeness and value. The feed should be
stored in a suitable place where it will not be attacked by microorganisms,
insects, rodents, etc. Air tight storage
is not advisable because offensive odour might result when there is obstruction
of out flow and inflow of air (Leonard, 1981).
High temperature and oxidation destroy certain vitamins, therefore, care
must be taken in the preservation and
storage of feeds to protect the vitamins they contain (Mc Graw – Hill
encyclopaedia 1992). The condition of feed storage and handling could be a
source of contamination. When feeds are
unhysgenically handled and stored, there could be a buildup of microbial
Poultry have been found to be
susceptible to infection due to certain microorganisms and man may be
secondarily infected through heavy contaminated food such as poultry meat and
eggs (Gorden and Tucker, 1965, Hall, 1977, and
Barrell, 1982). Micro-organism
that may contaminate feed include the following general another disease
caused by salmonella infections is paratyphoid.
Paratyphoid is an infection disease of chi, Entherobacter, Escherichia, Protens, Pseudomonas, staphylococcus,
salmonella, shigella, providencia, serratia, Klebsiella,
streptococcus, clostridium, Aspergillus and Erysiphelothrie (Leonard,
1981). Typically, in some countries, about 50% of all outbreaks of
salmonellosis in man are caused by infections derived from these sources and
the incidence of salmonella in poultry carcasses has, in certain cases been
found to be 7% or more (Van schothorst Notermans, 1980). Okongi (1984) examined poultry feed and found
that salmonella was present in the sample. Another disease caused by salmonella
infections is paratyphoid, Paratyphoid is an infections disease of chicken,
turkeys, ducks and other birds. Bofulism
another kind of disease occurs in both young and adult poultry birds. It is caused by a bacterium, Clostridium
Botulinum. This organism grows in decaying plants and animals materials.
Birds feeding material containing the toxins produced by the bacteria lose
control of their neck muscle (Leonard, 1981).
OBJECTIVE OF THIS
objective of this study is to ascertain the microbial safety of commercial
poultry feeds produced by companies.
AIMS OF THE STUDY
To isolate micro-organisms that are contaminants of
To identify the bacterial types
To determine the microbial load of poultry feed.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Poultry feed is known to contain salmonella,
and other microorganisms are also implicated in poultry feeds, (Klinger and
Ladidot, 1993). It is therefore
pertinent to carry out microbiological examination of commercially prepared
poultry feeds to ascertain their safety to livestock.
HO:- Poultry feeds are associated
with bacterial contaminants
feeds are not associated with bacterial contaminants
HII:- Poultry feeds do not have enough bacterial contaminants to cause
infection in poultry
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
is limited to bacteria contaminants associated with poultry feeds from three
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
As the end
of the project work, the results will be a guide to the microbiological safety or otherwise of the
commercially prepared poultry feeds.
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