Title page i
Table of content vi-vii
1.1 Health Agencies in Institution of Learning 1
1.2 The Role of the School 1-7
1.3 The role of the Teacher 8-9
1.4 Home and Community 10-16
2.1 National health Agencies 17-24
2.2 Ministry of Education 24-29
3.1 International Health Agencies 30-32
3.2 Red Cross Society 32-33
3.3 The World Health Organization (WHO) 33-35
3.4 UNICEF 36
3.5 The role of other UN Agencies 36-38
4.1 The important of Health in the World today 39-43
4.2 Summary 43-44
4.3 Conclusion 45
4.4 Recommendation 45-46
THE ROLE OF HEALTH AGENCIES IN INSTITUTION OF
Hydeno (1992) opened that institution of learning
are regarded as factories that manufacture ideas for the present and future use
of an individual who might be fortunate enough to have found himself in any of
the institution of learning.
Agencies have found it very ideal to inculcate into
student the various facets of health.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), “Health is three integral
parts. They can be defined
separately. However, it should not be
inferred that health is visible. Each of these parts, together with the
spiritual well being, is closely related to an independents on the others for
its proper functioning. If one part is altered here is immediate reaction in
the other parts” (Hydeno 1992). He
stated that the health agencies in institution of learning have helped each
individual to know the state of his or her health through the school, the
teacher, home and community.
1.2 THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL
He classified that the school has been made to
imbibe and inculcate into its students those learning experiences in
health. To teach the variety of
experience for purpose of improving attitudes, knowledge and practices relating
to health. To teach the students the
importance of health and to all intelligently in conformity with its awareness.
The school has been made to realize that the school
age is the crucial and formative age of the child, an age when it is easier to
cultivate habits than when older, realizing too the magnitude of the effect of
poor health on the pupils learning output, and realizing more over that the
child tends to spend more of his life in the school, it therefore becomes
imperatives that both the school and the teacher must accept fully the
responsibility for the health of the pupils placed under them.
Udoh (1991) contended that the health agency in
institution of learning includes the school officer and his assigned main
He is charge
with the responsibility of developing and supervising the total school health
the school healthy programme with other health agencies in the community
including family doctors, and local medical society.
teachers the result of student’s, medical, dental, or psychological tests.
He ensures that
students needing medical attention in schools where there are no school doctors
are refereed to doctors in general hospital.
that student recommended for special programmes, especially those placed on
restricted activities in physical
education are given adequate attention and their programme implemented as
prescribed by either a family or school doctor.
students returning to school after illness or injury and determines that
students participating in extra-curricular activities can do so without damage
to their health.
publicity for the school health programme and sees that all staff member are
award of the services available to them.
The checking of
the sanitary environment of the school is his responsibility.
in-service course, workshop and seminars for teacher especially the auxiliary
health instructors. He stated further
that the composition of the school health team and their main duties are as
The success of school health agencies depends upon
the efficiency of the school health teams.
The school administration is responsibility for finding the programme
and recruiting qualified personnel for the programmes. The health committee gives guidance and
leadership to the health education programme within the school and cooperates
with the community health council through duly – appointed representative.
The school doctor function as the school’s medical
adviser. The physical educators, because
of their strategic position, observe children health behaviour and offer
The physical educators also five health instructions
to student on variety of topics. The
nurse in school provides essential school health care to the sick student in
the absence of a medical doctor, and conveys the injured and sick students to
the nearest hospital for treatment. The
nutritionist ensures balanced and nourishing diet for the students, where food
is provided by the school, and well coordinated team work of those concerned
with the implementation of school health programme is the key to the success of
He stated forward that a health agency is of
paramount importance in our institution of learning. With agencies, the school realizes the need
for health inspection and examination, the need of training pupils in simple
health skills and healthful school environment.
(1) THE NEED FOR HEALTH RECORDS:
Health record for pupils are very essential. The use of charts, graphs, and histographs
would be found very indispensable.
Regular recording of the pupils, age weight and height, is very
essential as a useful way of observing their growth habits. The teacher should endeavor to put in more
effort to chart out the growth and or development pattern of each child, and
put up such charts on a health display board.
Pupils themselves tend to derive pleasure and knowledge by themselves
observing and interpreting their own growth curves or patterns.
A prompt report by the teacher to parents about any
abnormal growth pattern of their children would quite of the meet with
satisfying professional reward. Besides
this reward, such health records would form a useful basis for the accurate
forecast of the pupils possible academic output, and thus facilitate the
teachers, the teachers’ pedagogical and remedial approaches. Health records help to build up care history
for the pupils which are very invaluable for diagnosis of latter health
(II) THE NEED FOR REGULAR HEALTH INSPECTION AND
The detective and diagnostic values of daily routine
health inspections are so immense that the school timetable must be made to
accommodate a few minutes for daily health inspections. The routine is most valuable in guiding the
pupils to cultivate good health habits.
It is importance that the pupils be inspected in a single file in the
morning by the teachers before the day’s work or lesson commence. With the aid of health agencies, pupils have
been made to put up healthful look and to adhere to health habit and
regulation. They have helped to
A sort of routine inspection like, routine medical
check-up which must be organized by the school.
There is the routine medical dental examination for
school children. Similarly, routine X-ray may be needed to eradicate or prevent
some infection diseases.
THE NEED FOR TEACHING PUPILS IN SIMPLE HEALTH
Taking advantage of the formative and creative
potentials which usually dominate this stage of pupils’ developments, pupils
would respond very favorable to training in carrying out simple health
skills. They may be exposed to simple
first aid techniques by encouraging the formation of such organization as Red
Cross, scouting e.t.c health skills
acquired through this process have a far reaching effect on the future citizen
for the society.
HEALTHFUL SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT
Health school living or environment is defined as
everything that is being done “to Provide at school, physical, emotional and
social conditions which are of benefits to the health and safety of teachers
are the school children. The school and
the teacher are to recognize their crucial position amongst agencies that must
being about an urgent and lasting change for better in our society. Pupils must be encouraged to organize
voluntary clear-up companies. Pupils in
top classes can organize the voluntary building of public incinerators. By doing this, the teacher and the school are
leading the pupils to acquire the vital spirit of public health.
The teaching of physical education in school is very
essential, in that it is a means of ensuring physical health of pupils, which
is indisputable in educational practice, yet no educational practice is as the
teaching of physical education (Udoh 1992).
1.3 THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER
It is a known fact that a teacher is a person who
imparts moral value, academic teachings, both physically, mentally, socially,
emotionally and spiritually into an individual for the proper development and
systemic growth of an individual in any institution of learning. There is power in examples and “examples, are
better than precept” they say.
Quite often, it is said that “Those who preach the
gospel must always live by the gospel” these two axioms must emphasize and
point to the fact that the teacher must possess and practice good wealth
attitudes and habits in order to show and demonstrate example to his pupils one
of the very basic ability that is often exhibited by school pupils, in the
power of imitation. Pupils are easily
damaged or ruined through imitation of every bad habits or bad practices, hence
the teachers who fail to positively utilize the opportunity of such love for
imitation by showing good health habits.
Teachers who display poor habits like dirty and shabby dressing, un kept
hair and beards, bad table manners, poor toilet habit, un kept finger nails,
spiting carelessly, before his pupils are negative and very damaging too, his
personality and responsibility to the pupils, parents and the society at large.
He contended that, it is however the duty of the
school through the headmaster via the teacher and the health agencies to :-
child’s health need and interest for the development of high level health for
disorder and provide continues appraisal of each child’s health status.
health services for the disabled and optional children.
Develop in the
child a positive health awareness and reduction in the incidence of
communicable and non communicable diseases.
application of destintic factor as relate to health a huge level of self-esteem
and social adjustment in each child.
healthful personal practices and whole some health attitudes.
emergency measure, mentally-hygienic school environment and maintain sanitary
practice and surrounding.
He stated forward that the objectives of the school
health programme cannot be achieved unless the various organs that constitute
the health team function smoothly and effectively.
1.4 THE ROLE OF THE HOME AND COMMUNITY
Hosstrup (1989) stated that the roles played by the
parents and health agencies and in the promotion of school health cannot be
overemphasized. In the homes, the
primary responsibility for the health of a child rests with the parent. The mother is usually the first teacher and
all the basic health habits are learn at home even before the child starts
school. The parents should be taught
either through the Mass-media or adult education, the important of sound health
of their children. There are numerous
desirable health practices which parents should know and inculcate into their
children, such as:-
home and its surrounding including access to water supplies, if the main source
of H20 is well or spring, it is necessary that the water is boiled
before drinking, people disposal of human waste refuses and garbage is
essential and usually habit of throwing refuse around in the compound or street
is undesirable. Optional use should be
made of existing environment sanitary conditions.
appropriate steps for the prevention of home accident.
Do not put
medicine within the reach of children
away from the kitchen
Do not use
electrical appliances that are faulty
Do not improvise
but repairs things that are repairable and keep sharp knives away from
To arrange for
the best possible hygienic sleeping conditions and to avoid overcoming.
To keep the
immediate environment free-from rodents and insects.
To wear clothing
suitable for the prevailing climatic condition.
To eat an
adequate balanced diet in order to ensure full working capacity, correct Weight
control and to fulfill dietary requirement which will enable the body to fight
against diseases and to avoid disease due to malnutrition.
To teach the
children to wash hand after defecation and before handling food.
regularly and brush teeth in the morning and before retiring to bed at night.
appropriate use in the care fullness of the modern service available and to
seek routine medical examination and supervision as indicated of age and
10. To ensure that children obtain communization as
recommended by health authority.
11. Parents should know how budget and know what
priority to be give to each items such as food, clothing, shoes. House etc.
12. Parents must ensure that children wears shoes to
school to avoid nail puncture.
He stated further that, it should be emphasized that
parents at home should be able to learn more about their role in health
promotion of children and hope that their effort will lead to improvement in
health promotion of children and propagation of lives and that of the children
to a degree greater than any previous ages have seen. Prevention is better and
cheaper than cure and as such parents should work together to build a strong
and healthy nation.
It is of contributory fact and know that must
Nigeria lives in every thing from house – boast to free house and from poorly
made huts or sheds to mansions-few like the isolation of the desert hut or the
mountain sheds while other love to have their apartments in the city. Whether rural suburbau, and urban living, all
have their advocates within the community.
Costly their house as they purpose (an buy” is an American saying which
simply mean that a good home is worth what it costs. What you can afford to spend you should spend,
for the good home pays dividends far beyond its value in shelter. The enjoyment of community living, the
pleasure of gracious entertainment, and sheer physical comfort are but a few
example, the benefits to be gained from life in a superior, clear and hygienic
dwelling. Home and community as health
agencies have to see to the proper health development of their environment so
as to be conducive enough for habitation.
1. For comfort: - a good home must go a step-further by
providing comfort and protection. Cross
ventilation is a must for comfort during dry seasons and when the eat is
great. There must be prevention against
unpleasant Odors. A highly personal cleanliness must be reach by the community.
2. Proper lighting: - Every occupied room, bathroom,
included should have at least one window providing the greatest possible
illumination and this should be as much as possible without glare or shadow.
Direct sunlight is often advantageous
particularly for the ill or invalid: Direct sunlight is physically and
psychologically stimulating and a remarkable source of VITD in a house with children,
space is as much a matter of comfort as of health.
3. For mental health: -Rooms should be shared only by
persons of the same sex, for sleeping, young children should be separated from
their parents early and certainly by the age of four. Toilets, bathrooms and bedrooms should
be directly life provides those social
contracts expected in the home and in the community people cannot be mentally
healthy without them. A suitable
dwelling should have a living room or family room, one or more gathering places,
place a kitchen, dining room or area and whatever bedroom and bathroom the
family man need and can afford. The need
for companionship as well as for privacy can thus be satisfied to keep the
4. Cleanliness and Orderliness: - The mentally healthy
well-adjusted person can abide with extremes of cleanliness and tidiness for
short periods and can put up with disorders and disarray when necessary
cleanliness demands water in plenty at the
right places, much of it under proper pressure. What so supplied makes the home a different
world from one where water must be carried.
Plenty of water inevitable means cleaner people in a cleaner home. Where no harm can come from getting dirty con
however bring health danger.
5. Control of contagious diseases:- contagious and
infections disease play major role in Nigeria life. The kind of home, people live in, their size,
designed and quality have a great deal to do with the amount of illness cause
by communicable diseases. It is of
important that home be built in a way that gives bitter protection than just
building a house with poor quality and with bad material.
6. Safe water and proper sewage disposal:- Adequate
good and safe water is a priceless heritage for a nation and a treasure in any
home. The water therefore, must not be
subject to contamination by free of objectionable tastes, odors and
chemicals. The greatest threat to a good
water supply is raw, untreated sewage-in many part of our community, like the
industrial estates of Lagos
industrial wastes run a close second as a threat. Sewage and industrial wastes therefore should
be carefully collected and treated before being discharged into our water ways,
water should be given adequate treatment before being used for domestic
purpose. All domestic water supplies
whether pupils or private should be tested periodically for purity.
7. For the sake of safety: Home safety implies a sound
structure, measurable fire resistant and not likely to collapse under the
impact of the locality’s, most community, town planning. Authorities ensure that building codes and
observed to ensure those condition (Hasstrup 1989).
He classified that, at home, we have more accidents
that there are in industrial and high ways. Some of the worst home hazard are:-
stairways, too steep
stairways with inadequate tread on the inner side of the curve.
Yoys Stools, Chairs or ladder out of place
Low window sills
that lead to falls by careless children,
slippery floor and inadequate holds or grape-bars.
Two way swinging
Sharp turns that
can lead to collisions
from inadequate stove, water, health or fire places.
endless number of causes
Save living and maintaining good heal involve flu
same basic principles whether one lives in the city or in rural area.