TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE - - - - - - i
CERTIFICATION - - - - ii
DEDICATION- - - - - - - - iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT- - - - - iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS- - - - - vi
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem- - - - 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study- - - - 4
1.4 Significance of the Study - - - - 4
1.5 Scope of the Study - - - - - 6
1.6 Method of the Research - - - - 6
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Independence Struggles in Africa - - 8
2.1.1. The Rise of
Nationalism in Africa - - 9
2.2 Welfarism as a System - - 14
2.3 Socialism as a System- - - - - 16
2.4 Capitalism as a System- - - - - 19
BACKGROUND TO ZIK’S THEORY OF NEO-WELFARISM
3.1 American Influence on Zik- - - - 22
3.2 The Influence of Fabian Socialism - - 25
3.3 The Principle of Eclecticism - - - 26
3.4 The Principle of Pragmatism - - - 29
3.4.1 The Three Proponents of Pragmatism - 30
NEO-WELFARISM AS A VERITABLE NIGERIAN
4.1 The Nigeria Question - - 32
4.2 Nigerian Indigenous Ideology - - - 34
4.3 Fitting the Structures of Neo-welfarism
into Nigeria- - 37
4.3.1 Neo-welfarism and Political Freedom for
Nigeria - - 38
4.3.2. Neo-welfarism and
Social Equality for Nigeria- - - 41
and Economic Security for Nigeria - - 45
4.4 The Dialectics of Neo-welfarism- - - - - 48
4.5 The Canons of Neo-welfarism - - - - - 49
5.0 CRITICAL EVALUATION AND
5.1 Critical Evaluation- - - - - - - 52
5.2 Conclusion- - - - - - 59
BIBLIOGRAPHY- - - - - - 62
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
thesis springs from a genuine sense of patriotism to fashion a way forward for
my beloved country. It is rather remarkable at this time there seem to be
little incentive for patriotic concerns since the state had neglected to play
its part on the unwritten social contract with its citizens. Achebe captures
the scene very aptly, “when two Nigerians meet, their conversation will sooner
or later slide into a litany of our national deficiencies.”
national woes range from the alarming state of governmental maladministration
to the executive mismanagement of the supreme powers of the state. Its effects
include incessant nation-wide confusion, political instability, and social
unrests seriously endangering life and property. The irony however is that
these social evils that are man-made are perceived by some people to be Divine
ordinances or as an aspect of man’s essence which cannot be ameliorated.
root cause of this general prevailing decadence in our society is the poverty
of ideology. The prevalent ideology is reflected in the untoward practices of
the leadership, which has filtered into the entire sphere of society’s life.
Thus, our moral sensibilities have been inverted.
tall order facing us if we mean to regenerate our fatherland is “to evolve a
new political culture,”
through re-examining the alien ideology “imposed on us as a super structure by
the colonial whites”
with our indigenous ideology to form a social matrix, what Zik calls
Neo-welfarism. I see this event as a historical necessity. So that we recover
from our state of complete inertia, when confronted with issues threatening our
corporate existence and destiny.
OF THE PROBLEM
is a country blessed with enough material and human wealth to satisfy its citizenry.
However due to inadequate ideological orientation, she is nowhere near the
echelon of developed states. Though independent, she still moans under the
burden of under development. Politically, she is the bedrock of instability as
leaders want to perpetuate themselves in office. Economically, she is not
better off as occasioned by the low standard of living of its citizens. In the
technological circle, she could best be described as rich abroad while poor at
and many more tend to undermine the image of the Nigerian personality globally.
As no human society can thrive without an ideology of its own rooted in its
culture and past, Nigeria must look inwards. There is an urgent need for a
socio-economic system rooted in Nigerian culture and manifesting Nigerian
qualities which are “democratic according to her institutions, welfarist in her
economical background, altruistic in sociological life and religiously
socio-economic system that encompasses these qualities should be adopted to
alleviate the basic problems facing Nigeria. These positive visions will be
considered in the light of Zik’s Neo-welfarism.
OF THE STUDY
in various epochs have devised different socio-economic systems to attain the
ideal, and actualize the objectives of the state, which is the material and
social well being of the individual. These systems are adopted depending on
their suitability and adaptability to the particular people and
this light, we shall turn our searchlight on the system that will be best
adapted to the Nigerian situation. This system as it were will proffer
solutions to the perennial problems of Nigeria that have defied logic with a
view to restoring human dignity. This is paramount for we need more than just
the nebulous idea called democracy. To get to the El dorado, “we must go beyond
democracy and define in ideological terms the new society we envision and which
our people are daily craving for.”
Neo-welfarism will take us there.
OF THE STUDY
the research shows that his theory of neo-welfarism is the product of a
combination of his ingenuity in harmonizing opposites, with the environmental
circumstances and the socio-political climate of his life and time. This is in
accord with the views of the famous British Philosopher, Bethrand Russell;
both effects and causes: effects of their social circumstances and of the
politics and institutions of their time; causes,( if they are fortunate) of
beliefs which mould the politics and
institutions of later age.
OF THE STUDY
research does not over labour itself with discussing various socio-economic
systems obtainable in all countries, to locate the best option for Nigeria. It
is rather focused on Neo-welfarism with little insights into Capitalism,
Socialism and Welfarism. This insight will take a form of critique.
work will critically analyze these above-mentioned socio-economic systems
giving their merits and demerits and, stating why each is not suitable for
Nigeria when taken alone. Neo-welfaism will be equally analyzed bringing out
its basic features and the reasons why it is the most viable option for the
1.6 METHOD OF THE RESEARCH
to the nature of the work, which is historical as it is explorative, it becomes
paramount to employ the methods of exposition, analysis and critique. The
expository method will help us know the nature, origin, and history of the
three major socio-economic systems: capitalism, socialism and welfarism. That
of analysis will tell us the difference among these economic systems not
excluding their merits and short comings, whereas critical appraisal will help
us re-assess the various political systems to locate the most suitable one for
Nigeria to aid her socio-economic enhancement.
key concept here is neo-welfarism. This concept is not merely abstract, but has
a place in the practical human society. Neo-welfarism has much relevance in the
socio- political and economic life of man. By this fact, effort will be made to
practically apply the principles of neo-welfarism for the growth and
development of our Nigerian society.
the above background therefore, the work is divided into five chapters. Chapter
one is introduction. Chapter two is the literature review where the independent
struggles in Africa together with the three major socio-economic systems of
capitalism; socialism and welfarism will be discussed, exposing their strong
and weak points. This launches us into chapter three which out lines the
intellectual and cultural foundations that made Zik opt for neo-wlfarism, since
no one speaks from nowhere. Chapter four will see us vividly describing the
socio-economic system of neo-welfarism as a veritable Nigerian ideology, giving
the reasons for this postulation. While chapter five, is the critical
evaluation and conclusion.
Achebe, The Trouble with Nigeria (Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co.
Ltd. 1983), p.2
T.U Nwala, Nigeria: Path to Unity and Stability (Nsukka: Nigeria Books
and Publishing Co. Ltd, 1997), p. 230.
G.B. Ezeani, Redeeming Nigeria Through Massists Ideology (Yola: Juddy
Best Publishers. 1987), p. 15
Mosadomi, Secret behind my success – Zik
(The Punch Newspaper, Monday, Nov. 18, 1991) p.2.
Russel, History of Western Philosophy (London: Unwin Paperbacks. 1979),
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